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Acute Kidney Failure (cont.)

Acute Kidney Failure Prerenal Causes

Prerenal failure is the most common type of acute renal failure (60% to 70% of all cases). The kidneys do not receive enough blood to filter. Prerenal failure can be caused by the following conditions:

  • Dehydration: From vomiting, diarrhea, water pills, or blood loss
  • Disruption of blood flow to the kidneys from a variety of causes:
    • Drastic drop in blood pressure after surgery with blood loss, severe injury or burns, or infection in the bloodstream (sepsis) causing blood vessels to inappropriately relax
    • Blockage or narrowing of a blood vessel carrying blood to the kidneys
    • Heart failure or heart attacks causing low blood flow
    • Liver failure causing changes in hormones that affect blood flow and pressure to the kidney

There is no actual damage to the kidneys early in the process with prerenal failure. With appropriate treatment, the dysfunction usually can be reversed. Prolonged decrease in the blood flow to the kidneys, for whatever reason, can however cause permanent damage to the kidney tissues.

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Acute Kidney Failure - Symptoms

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Read What Your Physician is Reading on Medscape

Acute Renal Failure »

Acute renal failure (ARF) or acute kidney injury (AKI), as it is now referred to in the literature, is defined as an abrupt or rapid decline in renal filtration function.

Read More on Medscape Reference »


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