Acute Renal Failure
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What is acute renal failure?
Acute renal failure (also called acute kidney injury) means that your kidneys have suddenly stopped working. Your kidneys remove waste products and help balance water and salt and other minerals (electrolytes) in your blood. When your kidneys stop working, waste products, fluids, and electrolytes build up in your body. This can cause problems that can be deadly.
What causes acute renal failure?
Acute renal failure has three main causes:
You have a greater chance of getting acute renal failure if:
What are the symptoms?
Symptoms of acute renal failure may include:
Some people may not have any symptoms. And for people who are already quite ill, the problem that's causing the kidney failure may be causing other symptoms.
How is acute renal failure diagnosed?
Acute renal failure is most often diagnosed during a hospital stay for another cause. If you are already in the hospital, tests done for other problems may find your kidney failure.
If you're not in the hospital but have symptoms of kidney failure, your doctor will ask about your symptoms, what medicines you take, and what tests you have had. Your symptoms can help point to the cause of your kidney problem.
Blood and urine tests can check how well your kidneys are working. A chemistry screen can show if you have normal levels of sodium (salt), potassium, and calcium. You may also have an ultrasound. This imaging test lets your doctor see a picture of your kidneys.
How is it treated?
Your doctor or a kidney specialist (nephrologist) will try to treat the problem that is causing your kidneys to fail. Treatment can vary widely, depending on the cause. For example, your doctor may need to restore blood flow to the kidneys, stop any medicines that may be causing the problem, or remove or bypass a blockage in the urinary tract.
At the same time, the doctor will try to:
You can help yourself heal by taking your medicines as your doctor tells you to. You also may need to follow a special diet to keep your kidneys from working too hard. You may need to limit sodium, potassium, and phosphorus. A dietitian can help you plan meals.
Does acute renal failure cause lasting problems?
About half the time, doctors can fix the problems that cause kidney failure, and the treatment takes a few days or weeks. These people's kidneys will work well enough for them to live normal lives.
But other people may have permanent kidney damage that leads to chronic kidney disease. A small number of them will need to have regular dialysis or a kidney transplant. Older people and those who are very sick from other health problems may not get better. People who die usually do so because of the health problem that caused their kidneys to fail.
eMedicineHealth Medical Reference from Healthwise
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