Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome
Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is characterized by the
development of sudden breathlessness within hours to days of an inciting event.
Inciting events include:
- sepsis (microorganisms growing in a person's
- drug overdose,
- massive transfusion of blood products,
- acute pancreatitis, or
- aspiration (fluid entering the
lungs, especially stomach
In many cases, the initial event is obvious, but, in others (such as drug overdose) the underlying cause may not be so easy to identify. ARDS
typically develops within 12-48 hours after the inciting event, although, in
rare instances, it may take up to a few days. Persons developing ARDS are
critically ill, often with multisystem organ failure. It is a life-threatening
condition; therefore, hospitalization is required for prompt management.
ARDS is associated with severe and diffuse injury to the alveolar-capillary
membrane (the air sacs and small blood vessels) of the lungs. Fluid accumulates
in some alveoli of the lungs, while some other alveoli collapse. This alveolar
damage impedes the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide, which leads to a
reduced concentration of oxygen in the blood. Low levels of oxygen in the blood
cause damage to other vital organs of the body such as the kidneys.
ARDS occurs in children as well as adults. The estimated annual frequency of
ARDS is reported as 75 cases per 100,000 population. Mortality (death) rates
have been reported to be in the range of 30%-40%, but mortality increases with
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