John P. Cunha, DO, is a U.S. board-certified Emergency Medicine Physician. Dr. Cunha's educational background includes a BS in Biology from Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey, and a DO from the Kansas City University of Medicine and Biosciences in Kansas City, MO. He completed residency training in Emergency Medicine at Newark Beth Israel Medical Center in Newark, New Jersey.
Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD, is a U.S. board-certified Anatomic Pathologist with subspecialty training in the fields of Experimental and Molecular Pathology. Dr. Stöppler's educational background includes a BA with Highest Distinction from the University of Virginia and an MD from the University of North Carolina. She completed residency training in Anatomic Pathology at Georgetown University followed by subspecialty fellowship training in molecular diagnostics and experimental pathology.
The body's immune system involves the white blood cells, which produce antibodies.
When the body is exposed to an antigen, a complex set of reactions begins.
The white blood cells produce an antibody specific to that antigen. This is called "sensitization."
The job of the antibodies is to detect and help destroy substances that cause disease and sickness. In allergic reactions, the antibody is called immunoglobulin E or IgE.
This antibody promotes production and release of chemicals and hormones called "mediators."
Mediators have effects on local tissue and organs in addition to activating more white blood cell defenders. It is these effects that cause the symptoms of the reaction.
Histamine is one of the better-known mediators produced by the body.
If the release of the mediators is sudden or extensive, the allergic reaction may also be sudden and severe,
and anaphylaxis may occur.
Allergic reactions are unique for each person. Reaction time to allergens can vary widely. Some people will have an allergic reaction immediately, for others it will take time to develop.
Most people are aware of their particular allergy triggers and reactions.
Certain foods such as peanuts, strawberries, shellfish, shrimp, dairy, and wheat.
Babies can also have food allergies. There are more than 160 allergenic foods. Common foods that can cause allergic reactions in babies include milk, eggs, nuts, and soy. Talk to your pediatrician if you are concerned about food allergies in your baby.
Food intolerance is not the same as food allergies. Allergies are an immune system response, while food intolerance is a digestive system response in which a person is unable to properly digest or break down a particular food.
Vaccines and medications (antibiotics like penicillin, amoxicillin, aspirin, ibuprofen, iodine), general anesthesia and local anesthetics, latex rubber (such as in gloves or condoms), dust, pollen, mold, animal dander, and poison ivy are well-known allergens. Other known allergens can include detergents, hair dyes, and the ink in tattoos.
Bee stings, fire ant stings, penicillin, and peanuts are known for causing dramatic reactions that can be serious and involve the whole body.
Minor injuries, hot or cold temperatures, exercise, stress, or emotions may trigger allergic reactions.
Often, the specific allergen cannot be identified unless you have had a similar reaction in the past.
Allergies and the tendency to have allergic reactions run in some families.
Many people who have one trigger tend to have other triggers as well.
People with certain medical conditions are more likely to have allergic