Alzheimer's Disease in Individuals With Down Syndrome Glossary of Terms

The following are health and medical definitions of terms that appear in the Alzheimer's Disease in Individuals With Down Syndrome article.

Acetylcholine: A neurotransmitter released by nerves that is essential for communication b...

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Acquired: Not inherited, or present at birth (congenital), but developing after birth. For...

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Aging: The process of becoming older, a process that is genetically determined and environ...

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Alzheimer's disease: A progressive degenerative disease of the brain that leads to dementi...

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Amyloid: Any of a number of complex proteins that are deposited in tissues and that share ...

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Antidepressants: Anything, and especially a drug, used to prevent or treat depression.

Anxiety: A feeling of apprehension and fear, characterized by physical symptoms such as pa...

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Apolipoprotein E: A type of lipoprotein (a protein connected to a fat). Apolipoprotein E ...

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Bladder: A hollow organ in the lower abdomen that stores urine. The kidneys filter waste f...

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Bowel: The small and large intestine.

Brain: The portion of the central nervous system that is located within the skull. It func...

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Bridge: A set of one or more false teeth supported by a metal framework, used to replace ...

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Chromosome: A carrier of genetic information that is visible under an ordinary light micro...

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Cognitive: Having to do with thought, judgment, or knowledge.

Coma: A state of deep, unarousable unconsciousness. A coma may occur as a result of head t...

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Conception: 1. The union of the sperm and the ovum. Synonymous with fertilization.
...

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CT scan: Computerized tomography scan. Pictures of structures within the body created by a...

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Cure: 1. To heal, to make well, to restore to good health. 2. A time withou...

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Dementia: Significant loss of intellectual abilities, such as memory capacity, that is sev...

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Depression: An illness that involves the body, mood, and thoughts and that affects the way...

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Diagnosis: 1 The nature of a disease; the identification of an illness. 2 A ...

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Down syndrome: A common birth defect that is usually due to an extra chromosome 21 (trisom...

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Evolution: The continuing process of change.

FDA: Food and Drug Administration.

Fear of water: An abnormal and persistent fear of water. Sufferers of aquaphobia experienc...

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Food and Drug Administration: An agency within the US Public Health Service that provides ...

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Genes: The basic biological units of heredity. Segments of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) nee...

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Genetic: Having to do with genes and genetic
information.

Glutamate: A form of glutamic acid. See: Glutamic acid.

Hygiene: The science of preventive medicine and the preservation of health. Also commonly ...

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Infection: The invasion and multiplication of microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses, an...

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Medical school: A school with a curriculum leading to a medical degree. The mission of eve...

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Memory: 1. The ability to recover information about past events or knowledge. ...

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Mental retardation: The condition of having an IQ measured as below 70 to 75 and significa...

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Metabolic: Relating to metabolism, the whole range of biochemical processes that occur wit...

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Mild cognitive impairment: Abbreviated MCI. A brain disorder in which thinking abilities a...

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Motor: Something that produces or refers to motion. For example, a motor neuron is a nerve...

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MRI: Magnetic resonance imaging.

Muscle: Muscle is the tissue of the body which primarily functions as a source of power. T...

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Nasal: Having to do with the nose.

Neurology: The medical specialty concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of disorders o...

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Neuron: A nerve cell that receives and sends electrical signals over long distances within...

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Neurotransmitter: A chemical that is released from a nerve cell which thereby transmits an...

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Nose: The external midline projection from the face. The purpose of the nose is to warm, c...

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Palm: The grasping side of the hand; the flexor surface of the hand. In contrast to the ba...

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Progressive: Increasing in scope or severity, advancing, or going forward. For example, a ...

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Protein: One of the three nutrients used as energy sources (calories) by the body. Protein...

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Psychosis: In the general sense, a mental illness that markedly interferes with a person'...

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Referral: The recommendation of a medical or paramedical professional. If you get a refer...

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Rule out: Term used in medicine, meaning to eliminate or exclude something from considera...

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Scan: As a noun, the data or image obtained from the examination of organs or regions of...

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Senile: 1. Pertaining to old age. 2. Pertaining to the physical decline ass...

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Stage: As regards cancer, the extent of a cancer, especially whether the disease has spre...

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Syndrome: A combination of symptoms and signs that together represent a disease process.

Thyroid: 1. The thyroid gland. Also, pertaining to the thyroid gland. 2. A p...

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Trisomy: The presence of three copies of a chromosome rather than the normal two. The most...

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Trisomy 21 syndrome: A common chromosome disorder, often called Down syndrome, due to a...

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Voluntary: Done in accordance with the conscious will of the individual. The opposite of i...

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