Anatomy of the Endocrine System Glossary of Terms

The following are health and medical definitions of terms that appear in the Anatomy of the Endocrine System article.

Abdomen: The belly, that part of the body that contains all of the structures between the...

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Adrenal cortex: The outer portion of the adrenal gland located on top of each kidney. The ...

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Adrenal gland: A small gland located on top of the kidney. The adrenal glands produce horm...

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Adrenal medulla: The inner portion of adrenal gland. (The outer portion is the adrenal cor...

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Adrenaline: A stress hormone produced within the adrenal gland that quickens the heart bea...

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Anatomy: The study of human or animal form, by observation or examination of the living be...

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Anterior: The front, as opposed to the posterior. The anterior surface of the heart is tow...

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Artery: A vessel that carries blood high in oxygen content away from the heart to the far...

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Blood pressure: The blood pressure is the pressure of the blood within the arteries. It is...

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Brain: The portion of the central nervous system that is located within the skull. It func...

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Calcium: A mineral found mainly in the hard part of bones, where it is stored. Calcium is ...

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Circulation: In medicine, the movement of fluid through the body in a regular or circuitou...

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Cortex: The outer layer of any organ.

Cortisol: A metabolite of the primary stress hormone cortisone. Cortisol is an essential f...

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Endocrine: Pertaining to hormones and the glands that make and secrete them into the blood...

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Endocrinology: The study of the medical aspects of hormones, including diseases and condit...

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Enzymes: Proteins that act as a catalysts in mediating and speeding a specific chemical re...

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Estrogen: A female steroid hormone that is produced by the ovaries and, in lesser amounts,...

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Exocrine: Pertaining to the secretion of a substance out through a duct. The exocrine glan...

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Feedback: Many biologic processes are controlled by feedback, just as the temperature in a...

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Gland: A group of cells that secrete a substance for use in the body. For example, the thy...

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Glucose: The simple sugar that is the chief source of energy. Glucose is found in the bloo...

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Growth hormone: A hormone made in the pituitary gland that stimulates the release of anoth...

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Heart: The muscle that pumps blood received from veins into arteries throughout the body. ...

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Heart rate: The number of heartbeats per unit of time, usually per minute. The heart rate ...

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Hormone: A chemical substance produced in the body that controls and regulates the activit...

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Hypothalamus: The area of the brain that secretes substances that influence pituitary and ...

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Hypothyroid: Deficiency of thyroid hormone which is normally made by the thyroid gland wh...

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Immune: Protected against infection, usually by the presence of antibodies.

Immune system: A complex system that is responsible for distinguishing a person from every...

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Insulin: A natural hormone made by the pancreas that controls the level of the sugar gluco...

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Kidney: One of a pair of organs located in the right and left side of the abdomen. The kid...

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Lobe: Part of an organ that appears to be separate in some way from the rest. A lobe may b...

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Luteinizing hormone: A gonadotropin (a hormone that affects the function of the sex organs...

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Luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone: A hormone that controls sex hormones in men and wom...

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Medulla: The innermost part. For example, the adrenal medulla is the innermost part of the...

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Melatonin: A hormone that is produced by the pineal gland and is intimately involved in re...

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Menstruation: The periodic blood that flows as a discharge from the uterus. Also called me...

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Metabolism: The whole range of biochemical processes that occur within a living organism. ...

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Muscle: Muscle is the tissue of the body which primarily functions as a source of power. T...

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Neck: The part of the body joining the head to the shoulders. Also, any narrow or constric...

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Organ: A relatively independent part of the body that carries out one or more special func...

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Oxytocin: A hormone made in the brain that plays a role in childbirth and lactation by cau...

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Pancreas: A spongy, tube-shaped organ that is about 6 inches long and is located in the ba...

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Parathyroid gland: A gland that regulates calcium, located behind the thyroid gland in the...

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Parathyroid hormone: See Parathormone.

Pediatric: Pertaining to children.

Pediatrics: The field of medicine that is concerned with the health of infants, children, ...

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Pineal gland: A small gland that is located near the center of the brain. This gland secre...

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Pituitary: 1. As an adjective, pertaining to the pituitary gland or its hormonal se...

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Pituitary gland: The main endocrine gland. It is a small structure in the head. It is ca...

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Posterior: The back or behind, as opposed to the anterior.

Posterior pituitary: The back portion of the pituitary, a small gland in the head called...

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Pregnancy: The state of carrying a developing embryo or fetus within the female body. Thi...

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Progesterone: A female hormone, the principal hormone that prepares the uterus to receive ...

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Prolactin: A hormone secreted by the pituitary gland that stimulates lactation (milk produ...

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Scrotum: The pouch of skin that contains the testes, epididymides, and lower portions of t...

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Somatostatin: A hormone that is widely distributed throughout the body, especially in the ...

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Sperm: A sperm is the male "gamete" or sex cell. It combines with the female &qu...

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Steroid: One of a large group of chemical substances classified by a specific carbon struc...

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Stomach: The digestive organ that is located in the upper abdomen, under the ribs. The upp...

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Stress: In a medical or biological context stress is a physical, mental, or emotional fact...

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Testes: Plural of testis.

Testosterone: A "male hormone" -- a sex hormone produced by the testes that encourages th...

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Thermostat: A device that monitors temperature and automatically maintains it at certain l...

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Thyroid: 1. The thyroid gland. Also, pertaining to the thyroid gland. 2. A p...

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Thyroid gland: A gland that makes and stores hormones that help regulate the heart rate, b...

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Thyroid hormones: Chemical substances made by the thyroid gland, which is located in the...

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TSH: Thyroid stimulating hormone.

Uterus: A hollow, pear-shaped organ that is located in a woman's lower abdomen, between th...

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Vasopressin: A relatively small (peptide) molecule that is released by the pituitary gla...

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