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Anatomy of the Endocrine System (cont.)

IN THIS ARTICLE

Pineal Body

The pineal body, or pineal gland, is located in the middle of the brain. It secretes a hormone called melatonin, which may help regulate the wake-sleep cycle of the body.

Reproductive Glands

The reproductive glands are the main source of sex hormones. In males, the testes, located in the scrotum, secrete hormones called androgens; the most important of which is testosterone. These hormones affect many male characteristics (for example, sexual development, growth of facial hair and pubic hair) as well as sperm production. In females, the ovaries, located on both sides of the uterus, produce estrogen and progesterone as well as eggs. These hormones control the development of female characteristics (for example, breast growth), and they are also involved in reproductive functions (for example, menstruation, pregnancy).

Pancreas

The pancreas is an elongated organ located toward the back of the abdomen behind the stomach. The pancreas has digestive and hormonal functions. One part of the pancreas, the exocrine pancreas, secretes digestive enzymes. The other part of the pancreas, the endocrine pancreas, secretes hormones called insulin and glucagon. These hormones regulate the level of glucose (sugar) in the blood.

Pictures of the Endocrine System

Picture of the Thyroid Gland

Illustration of the Thyroid Gland

Picture of the Pituitary Gland

Illustration of the Pituitary Gland



Picture of the Parathyroid Glands

Illustration of the Parathyroid Glands


Picture of the Pancreas

Illustration of the Pancreas

Medically reviewed by John A. Daller, MD; American Board of Surgery with subspecialty certification in surgical critical care

REFERENCE:

Fauci, Anthony S., et al. Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine. 17th ed. United States: McGraw-Hill Professional, 2008.


Medically Reviewed by a Doctor on 3/1/2016
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