Anatomy and Physiology of the Eye Glossary of Terms

The following are health and medical definitions of terms that appear in the Anatomy and Physiology of the Eye article.

Anatomy: The study of human or animal form, by observation or examination of the living be...

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Anterior: The front, as opposed to the posterior. The anterior surface of the heart is tow...

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Anterior chamber: The space in the eye that is behind the cornea and in front of the iris.

Aqueous humor: In medicine, humor refers to a fluid (or semifluid) substance. Thus, the aq...

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Bacteria: Single-celled microorganisms that can exist either as independent (free-living) ...

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Brain: The portion of the central nervous system that is located within the skull. It func...

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Central vision: A process in which millions of cells change light into nerve signals that ...

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Choroid: In the eye, a thin vascular layer between the sclera and the retina. The choroid ...

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Ciliary body: Part of the eye, the ciliary body is a circular structure just behind the ir...

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Conjunctiva: A thin, clear, moist membrane that coats the inner surfaces of the eyelids (p...

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Cornea: The clear front window of the eye, which transmits and focuses light into the eye....

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Drain: A device for removing fluid from a cavity or wound. A drain is typically a tube or ...

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Duct: A walled passageway, such as a lymph duct, that carries fluid from one place to anot...

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Eyelid: The lid or cover of the eye, a movable fold of skin and muscle that can be closed ...

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Flush: (1) A redness of the skin, typically over the cheeks or neck. A flush is usually ...

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Gland: A group of cells that secrete a substance for use in the body. For example, the thy...

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Glaucoma: A common eye condition in which the fluid pressure inside the eye rises to a lev...

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Humor: In medicine, a fluid or semifluid substance. For example, the aqueous humor is the ...

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Iris: The circular, colored curtain of the eye. The opening of the iris forms the pupil. T...

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Lacrimal: Pertaining to tears. For example, the lacrimal gland is a gland that secretes te...

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Lacrimal gland: A small almond-shaped structure that produces tears and is located just ab...

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Lens: The transparent structure inside the eye that focuses light rays onto the retina.

Macula: A macula is a small spot. A macula on the skin is a small flat spot while the macu...

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Muscle: Muscle is the tissue of the body which primarily functions as a source of power. T...

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Muscular: Having to do with the muscles. Also, endowed with above average muscle developme...

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Nerve: A bundle of fibers that uses electrical and chemical signals to transmit sensory an...

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Nose: The external midline projection from the face. The purpose of the nose is to warm, c...

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Optic: Having to do with vision.

Optic nerve: The optic nerve connects the eye to the brain. The optic nerve carries the...

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Optic nerve head: The circular area in the back of the inside of the eye where the optic n...

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Orbit: In medicine, the bony cavity in which the eyeball sits.

Orbital: In anatomy, pertaining to the orbit, the bony cavity that contains the eyeball.

Physiology: The study of how living organisms function, including such processes as nutrit...

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Posterior: The back or behind, as opposed to the anterior.

Posterior chamber: The space in the eye behind the iris and in front of the lens. (The iri...

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Pupil: The opening of the iris. The pupil may appear to open (dilate) and close (constrict...

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Radiate: To spread out from a central area. For example, sciatic pain may radiate outward ...

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Retina: The retina is the nerve layer that lines the back of the eye, senses light, and cr...

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Sclera: The tough white outer coat over the eyeball that covers approximately the posterio...

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Skull: The skull is a collection of bones which encase the brain and give form to the hea...

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Temple: The area just behind and to the side of the forehead and the eye, above the side o...

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Vitreous: A clear, jelly-like substance that fills the middle of the eye. Also called the ...

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