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Anemia (cont.)

More Anemia Causes

  • Thalassemia: This is another group of hemoglobin-related causes of anemia. There are many types of thalassemia, which vary in severity from mild (thalassemia minor) to severe (thalassemia major). These are also hereditary, but they cause quantitative hemoglobin abnormalities, meaning an insufficient amount of the correct hemoglobin molecules is made. Thalassemia is more common in people from African, Mediterranean, and Southeast Asian ancestries.
  • Alcoholism: Poor nutrition and deficiencies of vitamins and minerals are associated with alcoholism. Alcohol itself may also be toxic to the bone marrow and may slow down the red blood cell production. The combination of these factors may lead to anemia in alcoholics.
  • Bone marrow-related anemia: Anemia may be related to diseases involving the bone marrow. Some blood cancers such as leukemia or lymphomas can alter the production of red blood cells and result in anemia. Other processes may be related to a cancer from another organ spreading to the bone marrow.
  • Aplastic anemia: Occasionally some viral infections may severely affect the bone marrow and significantly diminish production of all blood cells. Chemotherapy (cancer medications) and some other medications may pose the same problems.
  • Hemolytic anemia: The normal red blood cell shape is important for its function. Hemolytic anemia is a type of anemia in which the red blood cells rupture (known as hemolysis) and become dysfunctional. This could happen due to a variety of reasons. Some forms of hemolytic anemia can be hereditary with constant destruction and rapid reproduction of red blood cells (for example, as in hereditary spherocytosis, hereditary elliptocytosis, and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase or G6GD deficiency). This type of destruction may also happen to normal red blood cells in certain conditions, for example, with abnormal heart valves damaging the blood cells or certain medications that disrupt the red blood cell structure.
  • Anemia related to medications: Many common medications can occasionally cause anemia as a side effect in some individuals. The mechanisms by which medications can cause anemia are numerous (hemolysis, bone marrow toxicity) and are specific to the medication. Medications that most frequently cause anemia are chemotherapy drugs used to treat cancers (chemotherapy-induced anemia). Other common medications that can cause anemia include some seizure medications, transplant medications, HIV medications, some malaria medications, some antibiotics (penicillin, chloramphenicol), antifungal medications, and antihistamines.
  • Other less common causes of anemia include thyroid problems, cancers, liver disease, autoimmune diseases (lupus), paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH), lead poisoning, AIDS, malaria, viral hepatitis, mononucleosis, parasitic infections (hookworm), bleeding disorders, and insecticide exposure. It is noteworthy that there are many other potential causes of anemia that are not included in this list as these are only some of the more common and important ones.

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