Dr. Nabili received his undergraduate degree from the University of California, San Diego (UCSD), majoring in chemistry and biochemistry. He then completed his graduate degree at the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA). His graduate training included a specialized fellowship in public health where his research focused on environmental health and health-care delivery and management.
Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD, is a U.S. board-certified Anatomic Pathologist with subspecialty training in the fields of Experimental and Molecular Pathology. Dr. Stöppler's educational background includes a BA with Highest Distinction from the University of Virginia and an MD from the University of North Carolina. She completed residency training in Anatomic Pathology at Georgetown University followed by subspecialty fellowship training in molecular diagnostics and experimental pathology.
Thalassemia: This is another group of hemoglobin-related causes of anemia. There are many types of thalassemia, which vary in severity
from mild (thalassemia minor) to severe (thalassemia major). These are also hereditary, but they cause quantitative hemoglobin abnormalities, meaning an insufficient
amount of the correct hemoglobin molecules is made. Thalassemia is more
common in people from African, Mediterranean, and Southeast Asian ancestries.
Alcoholism: Poor nutrition and deficiencies of vitamins and minerals are associated with alcoholism. Alcohol itself may also be toxic to the bone marrow and may slow down the red blood cell production. The combination of these factors may lead to anemia in alcoholics.
Bone marrow-related anemia: Anemia may be related to diseases involving the bone marrow. Some blood cancers such as leukemia or
lymphomas can alter the production of red blood cells and result in anemia. Other processes may be related to a cancer from another organ spreading to the bone marrow.
Aplastic anemia: Occasionally some viral infections may severely affect the bone marrow and
significantly diminish production of all blood cells.
Chemotherapy (cancer medications) and some other medications may pose the same problems.
Hemolytic anemia: The normal red blood cell shape is important for its function. Hemolytic anemia is a type of anemia in which the red blood cells rupture (known as hemolysis) and become dysfunctional. This could happen due to a variety of reasons. Some forms of hemolytic anemia can be hereditary with constant destruction and rapid reproduction of red blood cells
(for example, as in hereditary spherocytosis, hereditary elliptocytosis, and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase or G6GD deficiency). This type of destruction may also happen to normal red blood cells in certain conditions, for example, with abnormal heart valves damaging the blood cells
or certain medications that disrupt the red blood cell structure.
Anemia related to medications: Many common medications can occasionally cause anemia as a side effect in some individuals. The mechanisms by which medications can cause anemia are numerous (hemolysis, bone marrow toxicity) and are specific to the medication. Medications that most frequently cause anemia are chemotherapy drugs used to treat cancers
(chemotherapy-induced anemia). Other common medications that can cause anemia include some seizure medications, transplant medications,
HIV medications, some malaria medications, some
antibiotics (penicillin, chloramphenicol), antifungal medications, and antihistamines.
Other less common causes of anemia include
thyroid problems, cancers, liver disease,
autoimmune diseases (lupus), paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH),
malaria, viral hepatitis,
infections (hookworm), bleeding disorders,
and insecticide exposure. It is noteworthy that there are many other potential causes of anemia that are not included in this list
as these are only some of the more common and important ones.