Ankylosing Spondylitis, Orthopedic Perspective Glossary of Terms

The following are health and medical definitions of terms that appear in the Ankylosing Spondylitis, Orthopedic Perspective article.

Abnormal: Outside the expected norm, or uncharacteristic of a particular patient.

Acute: Of abrupt onset, in reference to a disease. Acute often also connotes an illness th...

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Aging: The process of becoming older, a process that is genetically determined and environ...

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American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons: The professional organization of American orthop...

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Ankylosing: Having a tendency to stiffen and fuse together.

Ankylosing spondylitis: A form of chronic inflammation of the spine and the sacroiliac joi...

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Annulus: A ringlike structure, or any body part that is shaped like a ring. Applied to man...

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Antibiotic: A drug used to treat infections caused by bacteria and other microorganisms. ...

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Aorta: The largest artery in the body, the aorta arises from the left ventricle of the he...

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Aortic: Pertaining to the aorta, the largest artery in the body.

Aortic valve: One of the four valves in the heart, this valve is situated at exit of the ...

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Aortitis: Inflammation of the aorta. The causes of aortitis include syphilis and rheumatic...

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Arms: An appendage in anatomy and in clinical trials. See: Arm.

Arthritis: Inflammation of a joint. When joints are inflamed they can develop stiffness, w...

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Aspirin: Once the Bayer trademark for acetylsalicylic acid, now the common name for this a...

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Back pain: Pain felt in the low or upper back. Causes of pain in the low and upper back in...

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Bacteria: Single-celled microorganisms that can exist either as independent (free-living) ...

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Bilateral: Affecting both sides. For example, bilateral arthritis affects joints on both t...

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Bladder: A hollow organ in the lower abdomen that stores urine. The kidneys filter waste f...

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Blurred vision: Lack of sharpness of vision with, as a result, the inability to see fine d...

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Bowel: The small and large intestine.

Brain: The portion of the central nervous system that is located within the skull. It func...

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Breathing: The process of respiration, during which air is inhaled into the lungs through ...

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Cardiologist: A physician who specializes in treating heart disorders.

Cascade: A sequence of successive activation reactions involving enzymes (enzyme cascade) ...

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Cauda equina: A bundle of spinal nerve roots that arise from the end of the spinal cord. T...

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Cauda equina syndrome: Impairment of the nerves in the cauda equina, characterized by dull...

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Cervical: Having to do with any kind of neck, including the neck on which the head is perc...

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Chest: The area of the body located between the neck and the abdomen. The chest contains t...

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Chest X-ray: A type of X-ray commonly used to detect abnormalities in the lungs. A chest X...

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Chronic: In medicine, lasting a long time. A chronic condition is one that lasts 3 months ...

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Colitis: Inflammation of the large intestine (the colon). There are many forms of coliti...

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Cure: 1. To heal, to make well, to restore to good health. 2. A time withou...

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Diagnosis: 1 The nature of a disease; the identification of an illness. 2 A ...

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Dysfunction: Difficult function or abnormal function.

Fracture: A break in bone or cartilage. Although usually a result of trauma, a fracture ca...

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Genetic: Having to do with genes and genetic
information.

Genetic counseling: An educational counseling process for individuals and families who hav...

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Heart: The muscle that pumps blood received from veins into arteries throughout the body. ...

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Heart block: A blockage in the conduction of the normal electrical impulses in the heart. ...

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Hip pain: Hip pain is the sensation of discomfort in or around the hip joint, where the up...

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Ibuprofen: A nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) that is commonly used to treat pa...

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Infection: The invasion and multiplication of microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses, an...

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Inflammation: A localized reaction that produces redness, warmth, swelling, and pain as a ...

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Inflammatory bowel disease: A group of chronic intestinal diseases characterized by infla...

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Informatics: The application of computers and statistics to the management of information....

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Injury: Harm or hurt. To harm, hurt, or wound. The word injure may be in physical or emot...

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Internal medicine: The medical specialty dedicated to the diagnosis and medical treatment ...

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Intervertebral disk: A pad of cartilage between two vertebrae that acts as a shock absorbe...

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Iris: The circular, colored curtain of the eye. The opening of the iris forms the pupil. T...

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Iritis: Inflammation of the iris. The iris is the circular, colored curtain in the front o...

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Jaw: The movable junction of the bones below the mouth (the mandible) and the bone just ab...

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Joint: The area where two bones are attached for the purpose of permitting body parts to m...

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Juvenile: Between infantile and adult. Used in medicine to indicate onset in childhood, as...

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Knee: The knee is a joint which has three parts. The thigh bone (the femur) meets the lar...

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Lacrimation: Shedding tears, or shedding more tears than is normal (for example, as a resu...

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Low back pain: Pain in the lower back area that can relate to problems with the lumbar spi...

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Lungs: The lungs are a pair of breathing organs located with the chest which remove carbon...

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Medical history: 1. In clinical medicine, the patient's past and present which may ...

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MRI: Magnetic resonance imaging.

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Neck: The part of the body joining the head to the shoulders. Also, any narrow or constric...

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Necrosis: The death of living cells or tissues. Necrosis can be due, for example, to ische...

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Neurological: Having to do with the nerves or the nervous system as, for example, a neurol...

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Onset: In medicine, the first appearance of the signs or symptoms of an illness as, for ex...

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Ophthalmologist: A physician who practices ophthalmology.

Orthopedics: The branch of surgery that is broadly concerned with the skeletal system. Som...

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Ossification: The process of creating bone, that is of transforming cartilage (or fibrous ...

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Osteotomy: Taking out part or all of a bone, or cutting into or through bone.

Pain: An unpleasant sensation that can range from mild, localized discomfort to agony. Pa...

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Pelvis: The lower part of the abdomen, located between the hip bones. Structures in the fe...

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Peripheral: Situated away from the center, as opposed to centrally located.

Pharmacy: A location where prescription medications are sold. A pharmacy is constantly sup...

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Photophobia: Painful oversensitivity to light. For example, photophobia is often seen in m...

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Progressive: Increasing in scope or severity, advancing, or going forward. For example, a ...

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Protein: One of the three nutrients used as energy sources (calories) by the body. Protein...

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Psoriatic arthritis: Joint inflammation that is associated with psoriasis. Psoriatic arthr...

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Pulmonary: Having to do with the lungs.

Pulmonary fibrosis: Scarring throughout the lungs that can be caused by many conditions, s...

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Range of motion: The full movement potential of a joint, usually its range of flexion and ...

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Reactive arthritis: A chronic form of arthritis featuring the following three conditions: ...

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Red eye: Also called conjunctivitis. Redness or irritation of the conjunctivae, the membra...

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Reiter syndrome: A chronic form of inflammatory arthritis wherein the following three cond...

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Rheumatoid arthritis: An autoimmune disease characterized by chronic inflammation of joint...

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Rheumatology: A subspecialty of internal medicine that involves the nonsurgical evaluation...

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Rib: One of the 12 paired arches of bone that form the skeletal structure of the chest wal...

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Rule out: Term used in medicine, meaning to eliminate or exclude something from considera...

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Sensitivity: 1. In psychology, the quality of being sensitive. As, for example, sen...

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Shoulder: A structure made up of two main bones: the scapula (shoulder blade) and the hume...

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Spinal cord: The major column of nerve tissue that is connected to the brain and lies with...

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Spinal stenosis: Narrowing of the spinal canal. Spinal stenosis is most commonly caused by...

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Spine: 1) The column of bone known as the vertebral column, which surrounds and protects ...

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Spondylitis: Inflammation of one or more of the vertebrae of the spine. Diffuse inflammati...

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Stenosis: A narrowing. For example, aortic stenosis is a narrowing of the aortic valve in ...

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Surgeon: A physician who treats disease, injury, or deformity via operative or manual meth...

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Surgery: The branch of medicine that employs operations in the treatment of disease or inj...

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Syndrome: A combination of symptoms and signs that together represent a disease process.

Thoracic: Pertaining to the chest. For example, the thoracic aorta is the part of the aort...

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TMJ: Temporomandibular joint.

Tumor: An abnormal mass of tissue. Tumors are a classic sign of inflammation, and can be ...

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Tumor necrosis factor: One of multiple proteins capable of inducing necrosis (death) of tu...

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Ulcerative colitis: A bowel disease that is characterized by inflammation with ulcer forma...

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Unilateral: Having, or relating to, one side. For example, a unilateral rash is one that i...

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Vertebrae: The preferred plural of vertebra. (The alternate plural is vertebras.) See also...

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Vessel: A tube in the body that carries fluids. Examples of vessels are blood vessels and ...

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X-ray: High-energy radiation with waves shorter than those of visible light. X-ray is used...

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