Dr. Roxanne Dryden-Edwards is an adult, child, and adolescent psychiatrist. She is a former Chair of the Committee on Developmental Disabilities for the American Psychiatric Association, Assistant Professor of Psychiatry at Johns Hopkins Hospital in Baltimore, Maryland, and Medical Director of the National Center for Children and Families in Bethesda, Maryland.
Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD, is a U.S. board-certified Anatomic Pathologist with subspecialty training in the fields of Experimental and Molecular Pathology. Dr. Stöppler's educational background includes a BA with Highest Distinction from the University of Virginia and an MD from the University of North Carolina. She completed residency training in Anatomic Pathology at Georgetown University followed by subspecialty fellowship training in molecular diagnostics and experimental pathology.
Panic disorder: recurrent episodes of panic attacks, worry about having an attack, about what it means, or changing the way one behaves because of the panic attacks for at least a month. Panic attacks are separate and intense periods of fear or feelings of doom developing over a very short time frame-10 minutes-and
they're associated with at least four of the following:
Generalized anxiety disorder: excessive, unrealistic, and difficult to control worry over a period of at least
six months. It's associated with three of the following:
Phobic disorders: intense, persistent, and recurring fear of certain objects (such as snakes, spiders, or blood) or situations (such as heights, speaking in front of a group,
or public places). These exposures may trigger a panic attack.
Stress disorders: anxiety (also known as post-traumatic stress disorder) caused by the exposure to either death or near-death circumstances such as fires, floods, earthquakes, shootings, automobile accidents, or wars, for example. Other traumatic events may not have had the threat of death or near-death but resulted in the severe injury or threat thereof. Examples of such trauma include victimization through physical or sexual abuse, witnessing the abuse of another or over-xposure to inappropriate material (for
example, exposure of children to pornographic images or acts). The traumatic event is re-experienced in thoughts and dreams. Common behaviors include the following:
Re-experiencing the trauma, either when awake (flashbacks) or when asleep (nightmares)
Avoiding activities, places, or people associated with the triggering event
Being hypervigilant (you closely watch your surroundings)
Feeling a general sense of depression, irritability, doom and gloom with diminished emotions such as loving feelings or aspirations for the future
Symptoms such as chest pain, shortness of breath, palpitations, dizziness, fainting, and weakness generally should not be attributed to anxiety and require evaluation by a doctor.