Asthma in Children (cont.)
What Increases Your Risk
Many things can increase a child's risk for asthma. Some of these are not within your control; others you can control.
Personal and family history
- Gender. Among children, boys have asthma more often than girls.
- Race. Asthma is more common in black children than in white children.4
- Bronchial tubes that overreact. Children who inherit a tendency of the bronchial tubes (which carry air to the lungs) to overreact often develop asthma.
- A history of allergies. Children who have an allergy are more likely than other children to develop asthma. Most children with asthma have allergic rhinitis, atopic dermatitis, or both. Studies show that 40 to 50 out of 100 children who have atopic dermatitis develop asthma. Having atopic dermatitis as a child may also increase the risk of a person having more severe and persistent asthma as an adult.5
- A family history of allergies and asthma. Children who have an allergy and asthma usually have a family history of allergies or asthma.
- Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and wheezing at a young age. Early infection with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) that causes a lower respiratory infection increases a child's risk for wheezing.6 Young children who wheeze have a greater risk for asthma than children who do not wheeze.
Other things that increase your child's risk
- Cigarette smoking. Children who smoke are more likely to develop asthma when they become teenagers. A large study found that children who smoked at least 300 cigarettes in a year were almost 4 times more likely to get asthma.7
- Cigarette smoking during pregnancy. Women who smoke during pregnancy increase the risk of wheezing in their babies. Babies whose mothers smoked during pregnancy also have worse lung function than babies whose mothers did not smoke.8
- Secondhand cigarette smoke. Children who are around secondhand cigarette smoke are at increased risk for developing asthma.8 If children already have the disease, secondhand smoke increases the severity of their symptoms.
- Obesity. Studies have found a link between obesity in children and a higher-than-average asthma prevalence. But the reason for the link is unclear.4 Also, symptoms caused by obesity are sometimes thought to be asthma symptoms.
- Dust mites. Being around dust mites may increase your child's risk for asthma.8
- Cockroaches. In one study, children who had a high level of cockroach droppings in their home were 4 times more likely to have a new diagnosis of asthma than children whose homes have a low level.8
Experts are also not sure about the effect that pets in the home have on getting asthma. Some research shows that having cats or dogs in the home increases an adult's risk of getting asthma.9 But other research has seemed to show that being around pets early in life might protect a child against getting asthma.10
If your child already has asthma and allergies to pets, having a pet in the home may make his or her asthma worse.
Risks for very bad asthma attacks
Your child may be at increased risk for severe asthma attacks if he or she:
- Is an infant with asthma symptoms.
- Has a history of severe symptoms, such as asthma attacks that get worse quickly and frequent nighttime symptoms.
- Has had to go to the hospital or emergency room in the past because of an asthma attack.
- Has difficulty taking medicines or often has to use short-acting beta2-agonists.
- Has frequent changes in peak expiratory flow.
- Has symptoms that last for a long time.
- Does not use oral corticosteroids quickly enough during an attack.
- Does not have good support from families and friends.
Triggers also may make asthma worse and may lead to asthma attacks.