Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD, is a U.S. board-certified Anatomic Pathologist with subspecialty training in the fields of Experimental and Molecular Pathology. Dr. Stöppler's educational background includes a BA with Highest Distinction from the University of Virginia and an MD from the University of North Carolina. She completed residency training in Anatomic Pathology at Georgetown University followed by subspecialty fellowship training in molecular diagnostics and experimental pathology.
Dr. Shiel received a Bachelor of Science degree with honors from the University of Notre Dame. There he was involved in research in radiation biology and received the Huisking Scholarship. After graduating from St. Louis University School of Medicine, he completed his Internal Medicine residency and Rheumatology fellowship at the University of California, Irvine. He is board-certified in Internal Medicine and Rheumatology.
Bacterial vaginosis is a vaginal condition that results from an overgrowth of
normal bacteria in the vagina. The condition
was formerly referred to as Gardnerella vaginitis, after the bacteria that were believed to cause the
condition. However, since there are a number of species of bacteria that
naturally live in the vagina and can grow to excess to cause the condition, the
name bacterial vaginosis is the preferred term. As a result of overgrowth of
certain bacteria, a vaginal discharge may result.
Bacterial Vaginosis Causes
The reasons for overgrowth of certain types of bacteria in the vagina or an
imbalance in the growth of these bacteria are not fully understood. However,
certain factors can increase a woman's risk of developing bacterial vaginosis,
Vaginal douching may also increase the risk of developing bacterial
While the condition is more common in women with multiple sex partners, it is
not believed to be contagious or entirely related to sexual activity since it is
the result of overgrowth or imbalance in the bacteria normally present in the
vagina. Moreover, women who have not had sexual activity can develop bacterial
Up to 75% of women will experience an inflammatory condition of the
vagina at some point in
their lives. Medically known as vaginitis, inflammation in the vaginal area is a
common condition resulting from multiple causes. Two of the most common causes
of vaginitis are yeast infection and bacterial vaginosis.