Dr. Daniel Noltkamper, Medical Corps, United States Navy, received his undergraduate degree from the United States Naval Academy. He attended medical school at the University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston, graduating in 1990. He completed his internship in Family Medicine at Naval Hospital Charleston. CDR Noltkamper served as a General Medical Officer and Radiation Health Officer on board the USS Bainbridge and Squadron Medical Officer at Regional Support Group Norfolk.
Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD, is a U.S. board-certified Anatomic Pathologist with subspecialty training in the fields of Experimental and Molecular Pathology. Dr. Stöppler's educational background includes a BA with Highest Distinction from the University of Virginia and an MD from the University of North Carolina. She completed residency training in Anatomic Pathology at Georgetown University followed by subspecialty fellowship training in molecular diagnostics and experimental pathology.
Inner ear barotrauma: Feeling that your ear is full, nausea,
ringing in the ear, dizziness, and
Sinus squeeze: Sinus pressure, pain, or nasal bleeding
Face mask squeeze: "Bloodshot" eyes and redness or bruising of the face under the mask
Lung squeeze: Chest pain, cough, bloody cough, and shortness of breath
Aerogastralgia (gastric squeeze): Abdominal fullness, colicky pain (severe pain with fluctuating severity), belching, and flatulence (gas expelled through the anus).
Pulmonary barotrauma: Hoarseness, neck fullness, and chest pain several hours after diving. Shortness of breath, painful swallowing, and loss of consciousness also may occur.
Air embolism: Sudden loss of consciousness within 10 minutes of surfacing. Other symptoms include paralysis, numbness, blindness, deafness, dizziness, seizures, confusion, or difficulty speaking. The paralysis and numbness can involve several different parts of the body at the same time.
Rashes, itching, or bubbles under your skin
Lymphatic obstruction which can cause localized swelling
Musculoskeletal symptoms include joint pain that worsens with movement and commonly involves the elbows and shoulders
Nervous system after-effects include paralysis, sensory disturbances, and bladder problems, usually the inability to urinate.
Pulmonary symptoms include chest pain, cough, and shortness of breath.
Symptoms usually appear within 1 hour of surfacing but can be delayed up to 6 hours. In rare instances symptoms may not appear until 48 hours after the dive.
Flying in a commercial aircraft after diving may cause "the bends" to develop in the airplane because the cabin pressure is less than sea level pressure.