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Biological Warfare (cont.)


Media file 1: Bioterrorist agents. Signs and symptoms to watch for. Chart courtesy of North Carolina Statewide Program for Infection Control and Epidemiology (SPICE), copyright University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.
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Media type: Chart

Synonyms and Keywords

anthrax, Bacillus anthracis, inhalation anthrax, cutaneous anthrax, skin anthrax, plague, Yersinia pestis, bubonic plague, septicemic plague, pneumonic plague, cholera, Vibrio cholerae, tularemia, Francisella tularensis, brucellosis, Brucella, Q fever, Coxiella burnetii, smallpox, variola major, variola minor, viral encephalitides, viral hemorrhagic fevers, staphylococcal enterotoxin B, SEB, ricin, botulinum toxin, trichothecene mycotoxins, yellow rain, mycotoxins, biological warfare, biological warfare agents, VEE, WEE, EEE, encephalitis, weaponization, bioterrorism, Hantavirus, Ebola, Ebola virus

Authors and Editors

Author: Edmond Hooker, MD, DrPH, Assistant Professor, Department of Emergency Medicine, University of Cincinnati.

Editor: William C. Shiel Jr., MD, FACP, FACR

Previous contributing author and editors:

Author: Daniel J Dire, MD, FACEP, FAAP, FAAEM, Clinical Assistant Professor, Department of Emergency Medicine, University of Texas-Houston.

Editors: Ruben Olmedo, MD, Chief, Division of Toxicology, Clinical Assistant Professor, Department of Emergency Medicine, Mount Sinai Medical Center; Francisco Talavera, PharmD, PhD, Senior Pharmacy Editor, eMedicine; Anthony Anker, MD, FAAEM, Attending Physician, Emergency Department, Mary Washington Hospital, Fredericksburg, VA.


Dennis DT, Inglesby TV, Henderson DA, et al. (2001) Tularemia as a biological weapon: Medical and Public Health Management. JAMA. 285(21):2763-2773.

Earls JP, Cerva D, Berman E, et al. (2002) Inhalational Anthrax after Bioterrorism Exposure: Spectrum of Imaging Findings in Two Surviving Patients. Radiology, 222, 305-312. doi: 10.1148/radiol.2222011830.

Fowler RA, Shafazand S (2011) Anthrax Bioterrorism: Prevention, Diagnosis and Management Strategies. J Bioterr Biodef 2:107. doi:10.4172/2157- 2526.1000107.

Inglesby TV, Dennis DT, Henderson DA, et al. (2000). Plague as a Biological Weapon: Medical and Public Health Management. JAMA. 283(17): 2281-2290.

Jon-Erik C. Holty, MD, MS; Dena M. Bravata, et al. (2006). "Systematic review: a century of inhalational anthrax cases from 1900 to 2005". Ann Intern Med 144 (4): 270–80.

Nelson EJ, Nelson DS, Salem, MA, Sack DA (2011). Antibiotics for Both Moderate and Severe Cholera. NEJM. 364:5-7.

Wright JG, Quinn CP, Shadomy S, Messonnier N. (2010). MMWR. 59(rr06);1-30.

Last Editorial Review: 9/6/2012

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CBRNE - Biological Warfare Agents »

Biological weapons include any organism or toxin found in nature that can be used to incapacitate, kill, or otherwise impede an adversary.

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