Bladder Cancer Glossary of Terms

The following are health and medical definitions of terms that appear in the Bladder Cancer article.

Abdomen: The belly, that part of the body that contains all of the structures between the...

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Abdominal: Relating to the abdomen, the belly, that part of the body that contains all of ...

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Abnormal: Outside the expected norm, or uncharacteristic of a particular patient.

Adenocarcinoma: A cancer that develops in the lining or inner surface of an organ and usua...

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Adjacent: Lying nearby. Related terms include superjacent, subjacent, and circumjacent. Fr...

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Adjuvant: A substance that helps and enhances the effect of a drug, treatment, or biologic...

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Adjuvant chemotherapy: Chemotherapy given after removal of a cancerous tumor to further he...

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Aging: The process of becoming older, a process that is genetically determined and environ...

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Analysis: In psychology, a term for conversation-based therapeutic processes used to gain ...

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Anemia: The condition of having a lower-than-normal number of red blood cells or quantity ...

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Aristolochia fangchi: A Chinese herb that is injurious to the kidney and is also associate...

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Attenuated: Weakened, diluted, thinned, reduced, weakened, diminished.

BCG: An effective immunization against tuberculosis. BCG stands for Bacille Calmette Gueri...

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Benign: Not malignant. A benign tumor is one that does not invade surrounding tissue or sp...

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Biological therapy: Treatment to stimulate or restore the ability of the immune (defense)...

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Biopsy: The removal of a sample of tissue for examination under a microscope to check for ...

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Bladder: A hollow organ in the lower abdomen that stores urine. The kidneys filter waste f...

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Bladder cancer: A common form of cancer that begins in the lining of the bladder. The most...

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Bladder inflammation: Inflammation of the urinary bladder. Also called cystitis. Can be du...

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Blood in the urine: Blood that appears in the urine. Also known as hematuria. Gross hematu...

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Bone marrow: The soft blood-forming tissue that fills the cavities of bones and contains f...

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Bone scan: A nuclear medicine technique for creating images of bones on a computer screen ...

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Cancer: An abnormal growth of cells which tend to proliferate in an uncontrolled way and, ...

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Cancer causes: In most individual cases of cancer, the exact cause of cancer is unknown. T...

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Cancer symptoms: Abnormal sensations or conditions that persons can notice that are a resu...

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Carcinoma: Cancer that begins in the skin or in tissues that line or cover body organs. Ex...

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Catheter: A thin, flexible tube.

Cell: The basic structural and functional unit of any living thing. Each cell is a small c...

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Chemoprevention: The use of natural or laboratory-made substances to prevent cancer.

Chemotherapy: 1. In the original sense, a chemical that binds to and specifically k...

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Chest: The area of the body located between the neck and the abdomen. The chest contains t...

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Chest X-ray: A type of X-ray commonly used to detect abnormalities in the lungs. A chest X...

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Chills: feelings of coldness accompanied by shivering. Chills may develop after exposure t...

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Chronic: In medicine, lasting a long time. A chronic condition is one that lasts 3 months ...

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Circulation: In medicine, the movement of fluid through the body in a regular or circuitou...

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Contraction: The tightening and shortening of a muscle.

CT scan: Computed tomography scan. Detailed images of internal organs are obtained by this...

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Cure: 1. To heal, to make well, to restore to good health. 2. A time withou...

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Cystectomy: Surgery to remove the bladder.

Cystoscope: An optical instrument (a scope) that is inserted through the urethra into the...

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Cystoscopy: A procedure in which a lighted optical instrument called a cystoscope is inser...

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Cytology: The medical and scientific study of cells. Cytology refers to a branch of pathol...

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Diagnosis: 1 The nature of a disease; the identification of an illness. 2 A ...

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Diarrhea: A common condition that involves unusually frequent and liquid bowel movements. ...

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Endoscopy: Examination of the inside of the body by using a lighted, flexible instrument c...

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Excision: 1. Surgical removal, as in the excision of a tumor. 2. The remov...

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Fats: Plural of the word "fat". See the definition of fat.

Fetus: An unborn offspring, from the embryo stage (the end of the eighth week after concep...

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Fever: Although a fever technically is any body temperature above the normal of 98.6 F (37...

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Flush: (1) A redness of the skin, typically over the cheeks or neck. A flush is usually ...

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Genetic: Having to do with genes and genetic
information.

Glucose: The simple sugar that is the chief source of energy. Glucose is found in the bloo...

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Hair loss: Hair loss is the thinning of hair on the scalp. The medical term for hair loss ...

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Hematuria: Blood in the urine. Hematuria may or may not be accompanied by pain, but it is...

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Herbal: 1. An adjective, referring to herbs, as in an herbal tea.
2. A...

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Immune: Protected against infection, usually by the presence of antibodies.

Immune system: A complex system that is responsible for distinguishing a person from every...

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Immunotherapy: Treatment to stimulate or restore the ability of the immune (defense) syst...

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Impotence: A common problem among men characterized by the consistent inability to sustai...

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Incision: A cut through skin or other tissue performed by a health care professional.

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Indicate: In medicine, to make a treatment or procedure advisable because of a particular ...

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Infection: The invasion and multiplication of microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses, an...

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Inflammation: A localized reaction that produces redness, warmth, swelling, and pain as a ...

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Intestine: The long, tubelike organ in the abdomen that completes the process of digestion...

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Kidney: One of a pair of organs located in the right and left side of the abdomen. The kid...

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Lamina: Plates or layers. For example, the lamina arcus vertebrae are plates of bone withi...

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Laser: A powerful beam of light that is used in some types of surgery to cut or destroy ti...

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Liver: The largest solid organ in the body, situated in the upper part of the abdomen on t...

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Lung cancer: Cancer of the major organ of respiration - the lung. Lung cancer kills more m...

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Lungs: The lungs are a pair of breathing organs located with the chest which remove carbon...

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Lymph: The almost colorless fluid that travels through the lymphatic system, carrying cell...

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Lymphatic: Pertaining to a small, thin channel that is similar to a blood vessel and that ...

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Lymphatic system: The tissues and organs, including the bone marrow, spleen, thymus, and l...

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Malignant: 1. Tending to be severe and become progressively worse, as in malignant ...

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Marrow: The bone marrow.

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Menstruation: The periodic blood that flows as a discharge from the uterus. Also called me...

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Metastasis: 1. The process by which cancer spreads from the place at which it firs...

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Microscope: An optical instrument that augments the power of the eye to see small objects....

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Microscopic: An object so small it cannot be seen without the aid of microscope (for examp...

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Micturition: Urination; the act of urinating.

Mouth: 1. The upper opening of the digestive tract, beginning with the lips and con...

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Mucosa: Having to do with a mucous membrane. For example, the oral mucosa.

Mucus: A thick fluid that is produced by the lining of some organs of the body.

Muscle: Muscle is the tissue of the body which primarily functions as a source of power. T...

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Muscular: Having to do with the muscles. Also, endowed with above average muscle developme...

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Mycobacterium: A large family of bacteria that have unusually waxy cell walls that are res...

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Nausea: Stomach queasiness, the urge to vomit. Nausea can be brought on by many causes, in...

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Obstruction: Blockage of a passageway. See, for example: Airway obstruction; Intestinal o...

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Oncologist: A physician who specializes in the diagnosis and treatment of cancer. After a ...

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Oncology: The field of medicine that is devoted to cancer. Clinical oncology consists of t...

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Operation: In medicine, a surgical procedure. Many operations are named after persons. The...

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Organ: A relatively independent part of the body that carries out one or more special func...

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Organic: 1. A chemical compound that contains carbon.
2. Related to a...

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Outpatient: A patient who is not hospitalized, but instead comes to a physician?s office, ...

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Pain: An unpleasant sensation that can range from mild, localized discomfort to agony. Pa...

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Pathologist: A physician who identifies diseases and conditions by studying abnormal cells...

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Pelvic: Having to do with the pelvis, the lower part of the abdomen, located between the h...

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Pelvis: The lower part of the abdomen, located between the hip bones. Structures in the fe...

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Penis: The external male sex organ. The penis contains two chambers, the corpora cavernosa...

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Photodynamic therapy: A form of treatment that uses a photosensitizing agent, administered...

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Platelet: An irregular, disc-shaped element in the blood that assists in blood clotting....

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Platelet count: The calculated number of platelets in a volume of blood, usually expressed...

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Pregnant: The state of carrying a developing fetus within the body.

Primary care: A patient's main source for regular medical care, ideally providing continui...

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Prognosis: The forecast of the probable outcome or course of a disease; the patient's chan...

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Prostate: A gland within the male reproductive system that is located just below the blad...

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Protein: One of the three nutrients used as energy sources (calories) by the body. Protein...

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Radiation: 1. Rays of energy. Gamma rays and X-rays are two of the types of energy ...

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Radiation oncologist: A physician whose specialty is the use of radiation therapy as a tre...

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Radiation therapy: The use of high-energy rays to damage cancer cells, stopping them from ...

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Radioactive: Emitting energy waves due to decaying atomic nuclei. Radioactive substances a...

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Rectum: The last 6 to 8 inches of the large intestine. The rectum stores solid waste until...

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Recur: To occur again; to return. For example, a symptom, sign, or disease can recur.

Recurrence: The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission. The reappearance ...

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Recurrent: Appearing or occurring again. For example, a recurrent fever is a fever that ha...

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Red blood cell: The blood cell that carries oxygen. Red cells contain hemoglobin and it is...

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Referral: The recommendation of a medical or paramedical professional. If you get a refer...

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Relapse: The return of signs and symptoms of a disease after a remission.

Reproduction: The production of offspring. Reproduction need not be sexual; for example, y...

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Resection: Surgical removal of part of an organ.

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Risk factor: Something that increases a person's chances of developing a disease. For exam...

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Rule out: Term used in medicine, meaning to eliminate or exclude something from considera...

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Scan: As a noun, the data or image obtained from the examination of organs or regions of...

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Semen: The fluid that is released through the penis during orgasm. Semen is made up of flu...

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Sore: 1. (adjective) A popular term for painful, such as a sore throat. 2. (...

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Squamous cell carcinoma: Cancer that begins in squamous cells -- thin, flat cells that loo...

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Stage: As regards cancer, the extent of a cancer, especially whether the disease has spre...

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Staging: stagingDoing exams and tests to learn the extent of a cancer, especially whether ...

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Substance: 1. Material with particular features.
2. The material that...

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Sunburn: Sunburn is an inflammation of the skin that develops in response to exposure to u...

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Superficial: In anatomy, on the surface or shallow. As opposed to deep. The skin is superf...

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Surgeon: A physician who treats disease, injury, or deformity via operative or manual meth...

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Surgery: The branch of medicine that employs operations in the treatment of disease or inj...

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Systemic: Affecting the entire body. A systemic disease such as diabetes can affect the wh...

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Systemic therapy: Treatment that reaches cells throughout the body by traveling through th...

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Therapeutic: Relating to therapeutics, the branch of medicine that is concerned specifical...

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Therapy: The treatment of disease. Therapy is synonymous with treatment.

Tired: A feeling of a lessened capacity for work and reduced efficiency of accomplishment,...

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Tiredness: See: Tired.

Toxicity: The degree to which a substance (a toxin or poison) can harm humans or animals. ...

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Transitional cell carcinoma: Cancer that develops in the lining of the renal pelvis, urete...

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Transurethral resection: Surgery to remove tissue using a special instrument inserted thro...

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Tubes: The "tubes" are medically known as the Fallopian tubes. There are two Fallopian tub...

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Tumor: An abnormal mass of tissue. Tumors are a classic sign of inflammation, and can be ...

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Tumor grade: The degree of abnormality of cancer cells, a measure of differentiation, the ...

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Ultrasound: High-frequency sound waves. Ultra-sound waves can be bounced off tissues by us...

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Urethra: The tube that leads from the bladder and transports and discharges urine outside ...

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Urinalysis: A test that is done in order to analyze urine. Because toxins and excess fluid...

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Urinary: Having to do with the function or anatomy of the kidneys, ureters, bladder, or ur...

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Urinary tract: The organs of the body that produce, store, and discharge urine. These orga...

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Urinary tract infection: An infection of the kidney, ureter, bladder, or urethra. Abbrevia...

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Urine: Liquid waste produced by the kidneys. Urine is a clear, transparent fluid that norm...

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Urologist: A physician who specializes in diseases of the urinary organs in females and th...

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Uterus: A hollow, pear-shaped organ that is located in a woman's lower abdomen, between th...

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Vagina: The muscular canal that extends from the cervix to the outside of the body. It is ...

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Vein: A blood vessel that carries blood that is low in oxygen content from the body back t...

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Vesicles: In dermatology, vesicles are small blisters, most often on the skin. Vesicles al...

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Vitamins: The word "vitamin" was coined in 1911 by the Warsaw-born biochemist Casimir Funk...

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Voluntary: Done in accordance with the conscious will of the individual. The opposite of i...

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Weight loss: Weight loss is a decrease in body weight resulting from either voluntary (die...

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White blood cell: One of the cells the body makes to help fight infections. There are seve...

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White blood cell count (leukocyte count): The number of white blood cells (WBCs) in the b...

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Womb: The womb (uterus) is a hollow, pear-shaped organ located in a woman's lower abdomen ...

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X-ray: High-energy radiation with waves shorter than those of visible light. X-ray is used...

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