Bladder Control Problems Glossary of Terms

The following are health and medical definitions of terms that appear in the Bladder Control Problems article.

Abdomen: The belly, that part of the body that contains all of the structures between the...

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Abnormal: Outside the expected norm, or uncharacteristic of a particular patient.

Aging: The process of becoming older, a process that is genetically determined and environ...

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Agonist: A substance that acts like another substance and therefore stimulates an action. ...

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Alzheimer's disease: A progressive degenerative disease of the brain that leads to dementi...

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Anticholinergic: Opposing the actions of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. Anticholinerg...

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Antidepressants: Anything, and especially a drug, used to prevent or treat depression.

Antihistamines: Drugs that combat the histamine released during an allergic reaction by bl...

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Arthritis: Inflammation of a joint. When joints are inflamed they can develop stiffness, w...

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Bacteria: Single-celled microorganisms that can exist either as independent (free-living) ...

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Bedwetting: Involuntary urination in bed. Bedwetting is called "enuresis," from the Gree...

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Benign: Not malignant. A benign tumor is one that does not invade surrounding tissue or sp...

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Biofeedback: A method of treatment that uses a monitor to measure patients' physiologic in...

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Bladder: A hollow organ in the lower abdomen that stores urine. The kidneys filter waste f...

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Bladder cancer: A common form of cancer that begins in the lining of the bladder. The most...

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Bladder infection: Infection of the urinary bladder. Some people are at more risk for blad...

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Blood in the urine: Blood that appears in the urine. Also known as hematuria. Gross hematu...

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Blood pressure: The blood pressure is the pressure of the blood within the arteries. It is...

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Botox: A highly purified preparation of botulinum toxin A, a toxin produced by the bacteri...

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Bowel: The small and large intestine.

Brain: The portion of the central nervous system that is located within the skull. It func...

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Caffeine: A stimulant compound found naturally in coffee, tea, cocoa (chocolate), and kola...

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Calcium: A mineral found mainly in the hard part of bones, where it is stored. Calcium is ...

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Cancer: An abnormal growth of cells which tend to proliferate in an uncontrolled way and, ...

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Catheter: A thin, flexible tube.

Cervix: The cervix is the lower, narrow part of the uterus (womb). The uterus, a hollow, ...

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Chronic: In medicine, lasting a long time. A chronic condition is one that lasts 3 months ...

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Collagen: The principal protein of the skin, tendons, cartilage, bone, and connective tiss...

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Complication: In medicine, an unanticipated problem that arises following, and is a result...

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Congenital: A condition that is present at birth, whether or not it is inherited.

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Constipation: Infrequent and frequently incomplete bowel movements. Constipation is the op...

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Contraction: The tightening and shortening of a muscle.

Cure: 1. To heal, to make well, to restore to good health. 2. A time withou...

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Cystoscope: An optical instrument (a scope) that is inserted through the urethra into the...

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Cystoscopy: A procedure in which a lighted optical instrument called a cystoscope is inser...

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Diabetes: Usually refers to diabetes mellitus or, less often, to diabetes insipidus. Diabe...

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Diagnosis: 1 The nature of a disease; the identification of an illness. 2 A ...

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Diverticulum: A small bulging sac pushing outward from the colon wall is a diverticulum. A...

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Drain: A device for removing fluid from a cavity or wound. A drain is typically a tube or ...

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Drip: Short for intravenous drip, a device for administering a fluid drop-by-drop into a v...

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Dysfunction: Difficult function or abnormal function.

Dysuria: Pain during urination, or difficulty urinating. Dysuria is usually caused by infl...

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Enuresis: Involuntary urination, which may be caused by a variety of factors. These includ...

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Estrogen: A female steroid hormone that is produced by the ovaries and, in lesser amounts,...

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FDA: Food and Drug Administration.

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Fistula: An abnormal passageway in the body. The fistula may go from the body surface int...

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Foley catheter: See: Catheter, Foley.

Fracture: A break in bone or cartilage. Although usually a result of trauma, a fracture ca...

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Genitalia: The male or female reproductive organs. The genitalia include internal and exte...

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Hematuria: Blood in the urine. Hematuria may or may not be accompanied by pain, but it is...

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High blood pressure: A repeatedly elevated blood pressure exceeding 140 over 90 mmHg. Chro...

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Hormone: A chemical substance produced in the body that controls and regulates the activit...

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Hygiene: The science of preventive medicine and the preservation of health. Also commonly ...

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Hysterectomy: An operation to remove the uterus. Hysterectomies are most commonly performe...

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Implantation: The act of setting in firmly.

Incontinence: The inability to control excretions, to hold urine in the bladder, or to kee...

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Incontinent: Unable to control excretions, to hold urine in the bladder, or to keep feces ...

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Infection: The invasion and multiplication of microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses, an...

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Injury: Harm or hurt. To harm, hurt, or wound. The word injure may be in physical or emot...

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Intestine: The long, tubelike organ in the abdomen that completes the process of digestion...

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Involuntary: Done other than in accordance with the conscious will of the individual. The ...

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Kegel exercises: Exercises designed to increase muscle strength and elasticity in the fema...

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Kidney: One of a pair of organs located in the right and left side of the abdomen. The kid...

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Kidney stone: A stone in the kidney or a stone that originates in the kidney but has passe...

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Labor: Childbirth, the process of delivering a baby and the placenta, membranes, and umbil...

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Leg: In popular usage, the part of the body from the top of the thigh down to the foot, an...

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Lumbar: Referring to the five lumbar vertebrae, the disks below them, and the correspondin...

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Meatus: An opening or a passageway. For example, the meatus of the ear is the opening to t...

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Menopause: The time in a woman's life when menstrual periods permanently stop; it is also ...

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Microscope: An optical instrument that augments the power of the eye to see small objects....

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Micturition: Urination; the act of urinating.

Multiple sclerosis: A disease that is characterized by loss of myelin (demyelinization). A...

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Muscle: Muscle is the tissue of the body which primarily functions as a source of power. T...

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Muscular: Having to do with the muscles. Also, endowed with above average muscle developme...

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Neck: The part of the body joining the head to the shoulders. Also, any narrow or constric...

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Nerve: A bundle of fibers that uses electrical and chemical signals to transmit sensory an...

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Neurological: Having to do with the nerves or the nervous system as, for example, a neurol...

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Nocturia: Excessive urinating at night. Nocturia can be normal and more common with aging....

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Nocturnal enuresis: Bedwetting at night. From the Greek "enourin" meaning "to urinate i...

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Nurse: 1) A person trained, licensed, or skilled in nursing. 2) To feed an infant at the ...

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Nursing: 1) Profession concerned with the provision of services essential to the maintena...

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Obesity: The state of being well above one's normal weight.

Obstruction: Blockage of a passageway. See, for example: Airway obstruction; Intestinal o...

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Organ: A relatively independent part of the body that carries out one or more special func...

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Outlet: The exit or opening. The means by which something escapes.

Overactive bladder: A sudden involuntary contraction of the muscular wall of the bladder c...

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Overweight: The term "overweight" is used in two different ways. In one sense it is a way ...

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Pain: An unpleasant sensation that can range from mild, localized discomfort to agony. Pa...

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Parkinson's disease: A slowly progressive neurologic disease that is characterized by a fi...

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Pediatric: Pertaining to children.

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Pelvic: Having to do with the pelvis, the lower part of the abdomen, located between the h...

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Pelvic exam: An examination of the organs of the female reproductive system.

Pelvis: The lower part of the abdomen, located between the hip bones. Structures in the fe...

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Postmenopausal: After menopause, the period of time after a woman has experienced 12 conse...

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Postpartum: The period just after delivery, as with postpartum depression. Postpartum refe...

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Pregnancy: The state of carrying a developing embryo or fetus within the female body. Thi...

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Pregnant: The state of carrying a developing fetus within the body.

Prevalence: The proportion of individuals in a population having a disease or characterist...

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Probe: 1: In surgery, a probe is a slender flexible rod with a blunt end used to explore, ...

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Prognosis: The forecast of the probable outcome or course of a disease; the patient's chan...

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Prostate: A gland within the male reproductive system that is located just below the blad...

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Radiation: 1. Rays of energy. Gamma rays and X-rays are two of the types of energy ...

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Radiation therapy: The use of high-energy rays to damage cancer cells, stopping them from ...

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Rectum: The last 6 to 8 inches of the large intestine. The rectum stores solid waste until...

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Residual: Something left behind. With residual disease, the disease has not been eradicate...

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Resistance: Opposition to something, or the ability to withstand something. For example, s...

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Rule out: Term used in medicine, meaning to eliminate or exclude something from considera...

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Sclerosis: Localized hardening of skin. Sclerosis is generally caused by underlying diseas...

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Second stage of labor: The part of labor from the full dilatation of the cervix until the ...

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Sensation: In medicine and physiology, sensation refers to the registration of an incoming...

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Sleep: The body's rest cycle.

Smooth muscle: Along with skeletal and cardiac muscle, one of the types of muscle tissue i...

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Spinal cord: The major column of nerve tissue that is connected to the brain and lies with...

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Spinal cord injury: Trauma or damage to the spinal cord, the major column of nerve tissue ...

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Spine: 1) The column of bone known as the vertebral column, which surrounds and protects ...

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Stage: As regards cancer, the extent of a cancer, especially whether the disease has spre...

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Stool: The solid matter that is discharged in a bowel movement.

Stress: In a medical or biological context stress is a physical, mental, or emotional fact...

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Stroke: The sudden death of brain cells due to lack of oxygen, caused by blockage of blood...

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Surgery: The branch of medicine that employs operations in the treatment of disease or inj...

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Sweating: The act of secreting fluid from the skin by the sweat (sudoriferous) glands. The...

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Symptom: Any subjective evidence of disease. In contrast, a sign is objective. Blood comin...

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Tension: 1) The pressure within a vessel, such as blood pressure: the pressure within t...

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Therapy: The treatment of disease. Therapy is synonymous with treatment.

Topical: Pertaining to a particular surface area. For example, a topical agent is applied ...

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Tricyclic antidepressants: One of a class of medications used to treat depression. The tri...

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Ultrasound: High-frequency sound waves. Ultra-sound waves can be bounced off tissues by us...

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Urethra: The tube that leads from the bladder and transports and discharges urine outside ...

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Urge incontinence: A sudden involuntary contraction of the muscular wall of the bladder ca...

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Urinalysis: A test that is done in order to analyze urine. Because toxins and excess fluid...

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Urinary: Having to do with the function or anatomy of the kidneys, ureters, bladder, or ur...

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Urinary incontinence: The unintentional loss of urine. Inability to hold urine in the blad...

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Urinary tract: The organs of the body that produce, store, and discharge urine. These orga...

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Urinary tract infection: An infection of the kidney, ureter, bladder, or urethra. Abbrevia...

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Urine: Liquid waste produced by the kidneys. Urine is a clear, transparent fluid that norm...

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Urologist: A physician who specializes in diseases of the urinary organs in females and th...

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Vagina: The muscular canal that extends from the cervix to the outside of the body. It is ...

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Weight loss: Weight loss is a decrease in body weight resulting from either voluntary (die...

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