Brain Infection Glossary of Terms

The following are health and medical definitions of terms that appear in the Brain Infection article.

Abscess: A local accumulation of pus anywhere in the body. The following are some example...

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Acquired: Not inherited, or present at birth (congenital), but developing after birth. For...

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Acute: Of abrupt onset, in reference to a disease. Acute often also connotes an illness th...

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Amputation: Removal of part or all of a body part that is enclosed by skin. Amputation can...

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Analysis: In psychology, a term for conversation-based therapeutic processes used to gain ...

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Antibiotic: A drug used to treat infections caused by bacteria and other microorganisms. ...

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Antiviral: An agent that kills a virus or that suppresses its ability to replicate and, he...

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Arms: An appendage in anatomy and in clinical trials. See: Arm.

Back pain: Pain felt in the low or upper back. Causes of pain in the low and upper back in...

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Bacteria: Single-celled microorganisms that can exist either as independent (free-living) ...

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Bacterial: Of or pertaining to bacteria, as in a bacterial lung infection.

Blindness: Loss of useful sight. Blindness can be temporary or permanent. Damage to any p...

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Brain: The portion of the central nervous system that is located within the skull. It func...

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Brain swelling: See: Cerebral edema.

Breathing: The process of respiration, during which air is inhaled into the lungs through ...

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Cardiac: Having to do with the heart.

Cardiac muscle: A type of muscle tissue that is found only in the heart and is distinguish...

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Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: The US agency charged with tracking and invest...

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Cerebral: Of or pertaining to the cerebrum or the brain.

Cerebrospinal fluid: A watery fluid that is continuously produced and absorbed and that fl...

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Chronic: In medicine, lasting a long time. A chronic condition is one that lasts 3 months ...

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Coma: A state of deep, unarousable unconsciousness. A coma may occur as a result of head t...

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Complication: In medicine, an unanticipated problem that arises following, and is a result...

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Contrast: Short for "contrast media." Contrast media are X-ray dyes used to provide contra...

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CT scan: Computerized tomography scan. Pictures of structures within the body created by a...

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Cysticercosis: An infection caused by the pork tapeworm, Taenia solium. Infection occurs w...

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Deafness: Partial or complete hearing loss. Levels of hearing impairment vary from a mild ...

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Delirium: A sudden state of severe confusion and rapid changes in brain function, sometime...

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Dementia: Significant loss of intellectual abilities, such as memory capacity, that is sev...

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Diabetes: Refers to diabetes mellitus or, less often, to diabetes insipidus. Diabetes mell...

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Diagnosis: 1 The nature of a disease; the identification of an illness. 2 A ...

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Digestive system: The system of organs responsible for getting food into and out of the bo...

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Electrolyte: A substance that dissociates into ions in solution and acquires the capacity ...

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Emergency department: The department of a hospital responsible for the provision of medica...

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Encephalitis: Inflammation of the brain, which may be caused by a bacterium, a virus, or a...

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Escherichia coli: Full term for E. coli, the colon bacillus.

Extremity: An uttermost part of the body, such as a hand or a foot.

Feces: The excrement discharged from the 'intestines.

Fetus: An unborn offspring, from the embryo stage (the end of the eighth week after concep...

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Fever: Although a fever technically is any body temperature above the normal of 98.6 degr...

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Flexion: The process of bending, or the state of being bent. For example, flexion of the f...

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Flu: Short for influenza. The flu is caused by viruses that infect the respiratory tract w...

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Fungal: Pertaining to a fungus. For example, a fungal skin infection.

Fungi: Plural of fungus.

Germ: 1. A cell or group of cells (called a primordium) capable of developing into ...

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Headache: A pain in the head with the pain being above the eyes or the ears, behind the he...

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Heart: The muscle that pumps blood received from veins into arteries throughout the body. ...

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Herpes: A family of viruses. Herpes also refers to infection with one of the human herpesv...

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HIB: Haemophilus influenzae type B.

HIV: Acronym for the Human Immunodeficiency Virus, the cause of AIDS (acquired immunodefi...

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Human immunodeficiency virus: HIV, the cause of AIDS. HIV has also been called the human...

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Immune: Protected against infection, usually by the presence of antibodies.

Immune system: A complex system that is responsible for distinguishing a person from every...

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Immunity: The condition of being immune. Immunity can be innate'for example, humans are in...

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Immunization: Vaccination. Immunizations work by stimulating the immune system, the natur...

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Immunodeficiency: The inability to form a normal immune response. Immunodeficiency can be ...

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Incidence: The frequency with which something, such as a disease or trait, appears in a pa...

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Infant: A young baby, from birth to 12 months of age.

Infection: The invasion and multiplication of microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses, an...

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Inflammation: A localized reaction that produces redness, warmth, swelling, and pain as a ...

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Influenza: The flu is caused by viruses that infect the respiratory tract which are divide...

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Insertion: A chromosome abnormality that is due to insertion of a segment from one chromos...

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Intracranial: Within the cranium, the bony dome that houses and protects the brain.

Involuntary: Done other than in accordance with the conscious will of the individual. The ...

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Knee: The knee is a joint which has three parts. The thigh bone (the femur) meets the lar...

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Laboratory: A place for doing tests and research procedures, and for preparing chemicals a...

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Learning disability: A childhood disorder characterized by difficulty with certain skill...

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Libido: 1. Sexual drive. 2. In psychoanalysis, the psychic energy from all ...

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Listeria: A group of bacteria capable of causing illness including potentially fata...

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Lumbar: Referring to the five lumbar vertebrae, the disks below them, and the correspondin...

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Lumbar puncture: A procedure in which cerebrospinal fluid is removed from the spinal canal...

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Malaise: A vague feeling of discomfort, one that cannot be pinned down but is often sensed...

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Measles: An acute and highly contagious viral disease characterized by fever, runny nose,...

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Meninges: The three membranes that cover the brain and spinal cord (singular: meninx).

Meningitis: Inflammation of the meninges, the three membranes that envelop the brain and t...

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Meningococcal meningitis: Inflammation of the meninges due to infection with the bacterium...

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Mental retardation: The condition of having an IQ measured as below 70 to 75 and significa...

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Motor: Something that produces or refers to motion. For example, a motor neuron is a nerve...

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Mouth: 1. The upper opening of the digestive tract, beginning with the lips and con...

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MRI: Magnetic resonance imaging.

Mumps: An acute (sudden, shortlived) viral illness that usually presents with inflammation...

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Muscle: Muscle is the tissue of the body which primarily functions as a source of power. T...

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Muscular: Having to do with the muscles. Also, endowed with above average muscle developme...

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Myelitis: Inflammation of the spinal cord, such as from infection or immune inflammation.

Nausea: Stomach queasiness, the urge to vomit. Nausea can be brought on by many causes, in...

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Neck: The part of the body joining the head to the shoulders. Also, any narrow or constric...

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Neck pain: Neck pain is the sensation of discomfort in the neck area. Neck pain can result...

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Neisseria: A group of bacteria that includes the bacterium that causes gonorrhea.

Nerve: A bundle of fibers that uses electrical and chemical signals to transmit sensory an...

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Neurosurgeon: A physician who specializes in surgery on the brain and other parts of the n...

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Nose: The external midline projection from the face. The purpose of the nose is to warm, c...

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Onset: In medicine, the first appearance of the signs or symptoms of an illness as, for ex...

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Oxygen: The odorless gas that is present in the air and necessary to maintain life. Oxygen...

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Pain: An unpleasant sensation that can range from mild, localized discomfort to agony. Pa...

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Panic: A sudden strong feeling of fear that prevents reasonable thought or action. The wor...

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Paralysis: Loss of voluntary movement (motor function). Paralysis that affects only one mu...

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Parasite: A plant or an animal organism that lives in or on another and takes its nourishm...

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Parasitic: Having to do with a parasite, as in a parasitic infection; or acting like a par...

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Pediatric: Pertaining to children.

Pharmacy: A location where prescription medications are sold. A pharmacy is constantly sup...

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Pneumonia: Inflammation of one or both lungs, with dense areas of lung inflammation. Pneum...

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Polio: Abbreviation for poliomyelitis, an acute and sometimes devastating disease caused ...

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Poliomyelitis: An acute and sometimes devastating viral disease. Man is the only natural ...

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Poliovirus: A member of the enterovirus subgroup, family Picornaviridae. Enteroviruses are...

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Pork tapeworm: Taenia solium.

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Pregnancy: The state of carrying a developing embryo or fetus within the female body. Thi...

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Pregnant: The state of carrying a developing fetus within the body.

Prion: A small proteinaceous infectious disease-causing agent that is believed to be the s...

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Prognosis: The forecast of the probable outcome or course of a disease; the patient's chan...

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Psychiatric: Pertaining to or within the purview of psychiatry, the medical specialty conc...

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Pupil: The opening of the iris. The pupil may appear to open (dilate) and close (constrict...

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Rabies: A potentially fatal viral infection that attacks the central nervous system. Rabie...

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Rash: Breaking out (eruption) of the skin. A rash can be caused by an underlying medical c...

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Respiratory: Having to do with respiration.

Roundworm: A type of parasitic worm that hatches in the intestines and lives there. The eg...

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Rule out: Term used in medicine, meaning to eliminate or exclude something from considera...

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Saliva: a watery secretion in the mouth produced by the salivary glands that aids in the d...

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Scan: As a noun, the data or image obtained from the examination of organs or regions of...

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Seizure: Uncontrolled electrical activity in the brain, which may produce a physical conv...

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Shock: In medicine, a critical condition that is brought on by a sudden drop in blood flow...

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Sinus: 1. An air-filled cavity in a dense portion of a skull bone. The sinuses decr...

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Spinal cord: The major column of nerve tissue that is connected to the brain and lies with...

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Spinal tap: Also known as a lumbar puncture or "LP", a spinal tap is a procedure whereby ...

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Spine: 1) The column of bone known as the vertebral column, which surrounds and protects ...

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Stage: As regards cancer, the extent of a cancer, especially whether the disease has spre...

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Streptococcus: A group of bacteria that causes a multitude of diseases. Under a microscope...

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Tapeworm: A worm that is flat like a tape measure and functions as an intestinal parasite,...

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Therapy: The treatment of disease. Therapy is synonymous with treatment.

Throat: The throat is the anterior (front) portion of the neck beginning at the back of th...

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Toxoplasma gondii: A single-celled parasite that causes toxoplasmosis (toxo) .

Trauma: A physical or emotional injury.

Trichinella spiralis: The worm that causes trichinosis. Trichinella spiralis larvae can ...

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Trichinosis: A disease that is due to eating raw or undercooked pork or wild game that is ...

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Trimester: In obstetrics, one of the three divisions of three months each during pregnancy...

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Urine: Liquid waste produced by the kidneys. Urine is a clear, transparent fluid that norm...

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Vaccination: Injection of a killed microbe in order to stimulate the immune system against...

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Vaccines: Microbial preparations of killed or modified microorganisms that can stimulate a...

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Vein: A blood vessel that carries blood that is low in oxygen content from the body back t...

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Vertebrae: The preferred plural of vertebra. (The alternate plural is vertebras.) See also...

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Viral: Of or pertaining to a virus. For example, if a person has a viral rash, the rash wa...

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Viral infection: Infection caused by the presence of a virus in the body. Depending on...

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Virus: A microorganism that is smaller than a bacterium that cannot grow or reproduce apar...

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Viruses: Small living particles that can infect cells and change how the cells function. I...

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Vomit: Matter from the stomach that has come up into and may be ejected beyond the mouth, ...

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World Health Organization: The subagency of the United Nations (UN) that is concerned with...

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X-ray: High-energy radiation with waves shorter than those of visible light. X-ray is used...

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Medical Dictionary