Dr. Charles "Pat" Davis, MD, PhD, is a board certified Emergency Medicine doctor who currently practices as a consultant and staff member for hospitals. He has a PhD in Microbiology (UT at Austin), and the MD (Univ. Texas Medical Branch, Galveston). He is a Clinical Professor (retired) in the Division of Emergency Medicine, UT Health Science Center at San Antonio, and has been the Chief of Emergency Medicine at UT Medical Branch and at UTHSCSA with over 250 publications.
Steven Doerr, MD, is a U.S. board-certified Emergency Medicine Physician. Dr. Doerr received his undergraduate degree in Spanish from the University of Colorado at Boulder. He graduated with his Medical Degree from the University Of Colorado Health Sciences Center in Denver, Colorado in 1998 and completed his residency training in Emergency Medicine from Denver Health Medical Center in Denver, Colorado in 2002, where he also served as Chief Resident.
Brain lesions (lesions on the brain) refers to any type of abnormal tissue
in or on brain tissue.
Major types of brain lesions are traumatic, infectious, malignant, benign,
vascular, genetic, immune, plaques, brain cell death or malfunction, and
ionizing radiation. Other chemicals and toxins have been associated with brain
lesions as well.
Brain lesions have many different causes that are related to the types
Risk factors for the development of brain lesions include any behaviors
that increase the chances a person will suffer trauma to their head, exposure to
certain infections, smoking and
exposure to tobacco smoke, exposure to many
types of chemicals and ionizing radiation, a poor diet and alcohol use. Genetic
risk factors are unavoidable.
Signs and symptoms of most brain lesions are related to the type of lesion.
However, some symptoms often found in patients with different types of brain
lesions include headaches (recurrent or constant),
appetite, changes in mood, changes in personality, behavioral changes, cognitive
decline, inability to concentrate, vision problems, hearing and balance
problems, muscle stiffness, weakness, numbness or paralysis, change or loss of
sense of smell, memory loss, confusion,
seizures, and coma.
Seek prompt medical care if any of the above symptoms develop.
Diagnosis of brain lesions begin with the patient's medical and family
history, their signs and symptoms, and the physical exam. Usually several blood
tests are ordered and many patients will undergo a
CT scan or
MRI of the brain.
Definitive diagnosis for some brain lesions is based on examination of biopsy
tissue taken from the brain lesion.
Treatment of brain lesions depends on the brain lesion type, the patient's
age, their overall health problems, and the decision to proceed with a treatment
plan agreed on by both the patient and their medical treatment team. Depending on the
brain lesion type, treatment may include antibiotics, brain surgery, radiation
therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these treatments. Other lesions have
no effective treatment except for the use of medications that may reduce
symptoms and impede the progression of the disease.
Complications of brain lesions may arise from the disease process itself or
from the treatment modalities, and can range from minor complications (nausea and
vomiting) to severe (symptoms become worse, seizures, coma, or even death).
Prognosis for brain lesions is highly variable depending on the type of
lesion, the age and health condition of the patient, and how effective
treatments are for the patient. The range of prognosis varies from good to poor,
with the prognosis in some lesions declining as the patient's disease
progressively worsens over time (usually years).
The main symptom of a coma is unconsciousness. A patient in a coma will have no conscious response to external stimuli and may appear to be in a deep sleep.
The patient in a coma may exhibit spontaneous body movements. Patients may shake or jerk abnormally, and the eyes may move. If the coma is severe, even basic body functions such as breathing may be affected.