Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD, is a U.S. board-certified Anatomic Pathologist with subspecialty training in the fields of Experimental and Molecular Pathology. Dr. Stöppler's educational background includes a BA with Highest Distinction from the University of Virginia and an MD from the University of North Carolina. She completed residency training in Anatomic Pathology at Georgetown University followed by subspecialty fellowship training in molecular diagnostics and experimental pathology.
Dr. Balentine received his undergraduate degree from McDaniel College in Westminster, Maryland. He attended medical school at the Philadelphia College of Osteopathic Medicine graduating in1983. He completed his internship at St. Joseph's Hospital in Philadelphia and his Emergency Medicine residency at Lincoln Medical and Mental Health Center in the Bronx, where he served as chief resident.
Many women who develop breast cancer have no risk factors other than age and
Gender is the biggest risk because breast cancer occurs mostly in women.
Age is another critical factor. Breast cancer may occur at any age, though the
risk of breast cancer increases with age. The average woman at 30 years of age has
one chance in 280 of developing breast cancer in the next 10 years. This chance
increases to one in 70 for a woman 40 years of age, and to one in 40 at 50
years of age. A 60-year-old woman has a one in 30 chance of developing breast cancer in
the next 10 years.
White women are slightly more likely to develop breast cancer than African-American women in the U.S.
A woman with a personal history of cancer in one breast has a three- to
fourfold greater risk of developing a new cancer in the other breast or in
another part of the same breast. This refers to the risk for developing a new
tumor and not a recurrence (return) of the first cancer.
history has long been known to be a risk factor for breast cancer. Both maternal
and paternal relatives are important. The risk is highest if the affected
relative developed breast cancer at a young age, had cancer in both breasts, or
if she is a close relative. First-degree relatives (mother, sister, daughter)
are most important in estimating risk. Several second-degree relatives
(grandmother, aunt) with breast cancer may also increase risk. Breast cancer in
a male increases the risk for all his close female relatives. Having relatives
with both breast and ovarian cancer also increases a woman's risk of developing
There is great interest in genes linked to breast cancer. About
5%-10% of breast cancers are believed to be hereditary, as a result of mutations,
or changes, in certain genes that are passed along in families.
BRCA2 are abnormal genes that, when inherited, markedly increase the risk of
breast cancer to a lifetime risk estimated between 40%-85%. Women with these
abnormal genes also have an increased likelihood of developing ovarian cancer.
Women who have the BRCA1 gene tend to develop breast cancer at an early age.
Testing for these genes is expensive and may not be covered by insurance.
The issues around testing are complicated, and women who are interested in testing should discuss their risk factors with their health-care providers.
Hormonal influences play a role in the development of breast cancer.
start their periods at an early age (12 or younger) or experience a late
menopause (55 or older) have a slightly higher risk of developing breast cancer.
Conversely, being older at the time of the first menstrual period and early
menopause tend to protect one from breast cancer.
Having a child before 30
years of age may provide some protection, and having no children may increase the risk
for developing breast cancer.
Using oral contraceptive pills means that a woman has a slightly increased risk of breast cancer than women who have never used them. This risk appears to decrease and return to normal with time once the pills are stopped.
large study conducted by the Women's Health Initiative showed an increased risk
of breast cancer in postmenopausal women who were on a combination of estrogen
and progesterone for several years. Therefore, women who are considering hormone therapy for menopausal symptoms need to discuss the risk versus the benefit with
their health-care providers.