Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD, is a U.S. board-certified Anatomic Pathologist with subspecialty training in the fields of Experimental and Molecular Pathology. Dr. Stöppler's educational background includes a BA with Highest Distinction from the University of Virginia and an MD from the University of North Carolina. She completed residency training in Anatomic Pathology at Georgetown University followed by subspecialty fellowship training in molecular diagnostics and experimental pathology.
Dr. Balentine received his undergraduate degree from McDaniel College in Westminster, Maryland. He attended medical school at the Philadelphia College of Osteopathic Medicine graduating in1983. He completed his internship at St. Joseph's Hospital in Philadelphia and his Emergency Medicine residency at Lincoln Medical and Mental Health Center in the Bronx, where he served as chief resident.
More Medical Treatment: Monoclonal Antibodies and Surgery
Monoclonal antibodies are antibodies against
proteins in or around a cancer cell. Antibodies recognize an "invader"
-- in this
case, a cancer cell -- and attack it.
Trastuzumab (Herceptin) is an antibody
against the HER-2 protein, a protein responsible for cancer cell growth in many
women with breast cancer (about 15%-25% of breast cancers). Adding treatment with
trastuzumab to chemotherapy given after surgery has been shown to lower the
recurrence rate and death rate in women with HER2/neu-positive early breast
cancers. Using trastuzumab along with chemotherapy has become standard adjuvant
treatment for these women.
Lapatinib (Tykerb) is another drug that targets the HER2/neu protein and
may be given combined with chemotherapy. It is used in women with HER2-positive
breast cancer that is no longer helped by chemotherapy and trastuzumab.
Another monoclonal antibody,
Bevacizumab (Avastin) has been shown to have
activity in the treatment of breast cancer and is used in combination with
chemotherapy. This drug targets the ability of cancer cells to form new blood
vessels. However, the U.S. FDA revoked its approval of this drug in November 2011, noting that those taking Avastin faced potentially life-threatening side effects without proof that the drug provided benefits in slowing tumor growth or improving longevity or quality of life.
Surgery is generally the first step after the diagnosis of breast
cancer. The type of surgery is dependent upon the size and type of tumor and the
patient's health and preferences. The choice of procedures should be discussed with your health-care team as any approach has advantages and disadvantages.
Lumpectomy involves removal of the cancerous
tissue and a surrounding area of normal tissue. This is not considered curative
and should almost always be done in association with other therapy such as
radiation therapy with or without chemotherapy or hormonal therapy.
At the time of lumpectomy, the axillary lymph nodes (the glands in the
armpit) need to be evaluated for the spread of cancer. This can be done by
either removing the lymph nodes or by sentinel node biopsy (biopsy of the
closest lymph node to the tumor).
If a sentinel node biopsy is done at the time of lumpectomy, it may allow
the surgeon to remove only some of the lymph nodes. In this procedure, a dye is
injected into the area of the tumor. The path of the substance is then followed
as it travels to the lymph nodes. The first node reached is the sentinel node.
This node is considered most important to biopsy when evaluating the spread of
If the sentinel node biopsy is positive, the surgeon will usually remove of
all of the lymph nodes found in the axilla (armpit).
Simple mastectomy removes the entire breast but no other structures. If the
cancer is invasive, this surgery alone will not cure it. It is a common
treatment for DCIS, a noninvasive type of breast cancer.
Modified radical mastectomy removes the breast and the axillary (underarm)
lymph nodes but does not remove the underlying muscle of the chest wall.
Although additional chemotherapy or hormonal therapy is almost always offered,
surgery alone is considered adequate to control the disease if it has not
Radical mastectomy involves removal of the breast and the underlying chest
wall muscles, as well as the underarm contents. This surgery is no longer done
because current therapies are less disfiguring and have fewer complications.