Dr. Shiel received a Bachelor of Science degree with honors from the University of Notre Dame. There he was involved in research in radiation biology and received the Huisking Scholarship. After graduating from St. Louis University School of Medicine, he completed his Internal Medicine residency and Rheumatology fellowship at the University of California, Irvine. He is board-certified in Internal Medicine and Rheumatology.
Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD, is a U.S. board-certified Anatomic Pathologist with subspecialty training in the fields of Experimental and Molecular Pathology. Dr. Stöppler's educational background includes a BA with Highest Distinction from the University of Virginia and an MD from the University of North Carolina. She completed residency training in Anatomic Pathology at Georgetown University followed by subspecialty fellowship training in molecular diagnostics and experimental pathology.
Bunions are localized enlargements of bone and tissue on the sides and/or top of the joint at either the base of the big toe or smallest toe (bunionette). The common bunion is located at the base of the big toe (the first metatarsophalangeal joint). The enlargement is often a combination of bone and joint malalignment in combination with tissue inflammation. The common bunion is frequently associated with an inward displacement deformity of the big toe that is medically referred to as a hallux abducto valgus deformity. Bunions are categorized as mild, moderate, or severe.
A bunion at the base of the smallest (fifth or little) toe is referred to as a tailor's bunion or bunionette. This is because this bunion was noticed to be associated with pressure on the little toe of old-fashioned tailors when they sat cross-legged for hours at their craft.
Bunions can often be mistaken for hallux rigidus which is similar but typically more arthritic.
The way your foot is shaped puts too much pressure on your big toe joint. Because bunions can run in families, some experts believe that the inherited shape of the foot makes some people more likely to get them.
Your foot rolls inward too much when you walk. A moderate amount of inward roll, or pronation, is normal. But damage and injury can happen with too much pronation.
You have flat feet.
You often wear shoes that are too tight.
All of these may put pressure on the big toe joint. Over time, the constant pressure forces the big toe out of alignment, bending it toward the other toes.