Celiac Sprue Glossary of Terms

The following are health and medical definitions of terms that appear in the Celiac Sprue article.

Abdominal: Relating to the abdomen, the belly, that part of the body that contains all of ...

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Abdominal pain: Pain in the belly. Abdominal pain can be acute or chronic. It may reflect ...

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Abnormal: Outside the expected norm, or uncharacteristic of a particular patient.

Absorption: Uptake. For example, intestinal absorption is the uptake of food (or other sub...

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Albumin: The main protein in human blood and the key to regulating the osmotic pressure of...

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Amenorrhea: Absence or cessation of menstruation. Amenorrhea is conventionally divided ...

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Anemia: The condition of having a lower-than-normal number of red blood cells or quantity ...

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Antibody: An immunoglobulin, a specialized immune protein, produced because of the introdu...

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Autoimmune: Pertaining to autoimmunity, a misdirected immune response that occurs when the...

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Autoimmune process: A process in which the body's immune system attacks and destroys body ...

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Autoimmunity: A misdirected immune response that occurs when the immune system goes awry a...

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Bacteria: Single-celled microorganisms that can exist either as independent (free-living) ...

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Barium: 1. A metallic element belonging to the alkaline earths with an atomic numbe...

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Biopsy: The removal of a sample of tissue for examination under a microscope to check for ...

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Bowel: The small and large intestine.

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Calcium: A mineral found mainly in the hard part of bones, where it is stored. Calcium is ...

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Cancer: An abnormal growth of cells which tend to proliferate in an uncontrolled way and, ...

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Capsule: Capsule has many meanings in medicine including the following:

  1. In medici...

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Celiac disease: A disorder resulting from an immune reaction to gluten, a protein found in...

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Celiac sprue: An immune disorder whereby the small intestine is injured when exposed to gl...

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Cell: The basic structural and functional unit of any living thing. Each cell is a small c...

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Cholesterol: The most common type of steroid in the body. Cholesterol has a reputation for...

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Chronic: In medicine, lasting a long time. A chronic condition is one that lasts 3 months ...

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Chronic disease: A disease that persists for a long time. A chronic disease is one lasting...

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Colon: The long, coiled, tubelike organ that removes water from digested food. The remaini...

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Contrast: Short for "contrast media." Contrast media are X-ray dyes used to provide contra...

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Corticosteroid: Any of the steroid hormones made by the outer portion (cortex) of the adre...

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Depression: An illness that involves the body, mood, and thoughts and that affects the way...

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Dermatitis: Inflammation of the skin, either due to an inherent skin defect, direct contac...

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Dermatitis herpetiformis: an autoimmune condition that results in a chronic, itchy skin ra...

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Diagnosis: 1 The nature of a disease; the identification of an illness. 2 A ...

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Diarrhea: A common condition that involves unusually frequent and liquid bowel movements. ...

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Electrolyte: A substance that dissociates into ions in solution and acquires the capacity ...

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Endoscope: A lighted optical instrument that is used to get a deep look inside the body. A...

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Endoscopy: Examination of the inside of the body by using a lighted, flexible instrument c...

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Enteropathy: A disease of the intestine.

Enzyme: Proteins that speeds up the rate of a chemical reaction in a living organism. An e...

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Enzymes: Proteins that act as a catalysts in mediating and speeding a specific chemical re...

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Essential: In medicine, of unknown cause, as in essential hypertension (high blood pressur...

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Fatigue: A condition characterized by a lessened capacity for work and reduced efficiency ...

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Fats: Plural of the word "fat". See the definition of fat.

Flatulence: Excess gas in the intestinal tract. But excess flatulence is difficult to defi...

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Folate: Folic acid, one of the B vitamins that is a key factor in the synthesis (the makin...

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Folic acid: One of the B vitamins that is a key factor in the synthesis (the making) of nu...

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Gastrointestinal: Adjective referring collectively to the stomach and small and large inte...

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Genes: The basic biological units of heredity. Segments of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) nee...

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Genetic: Having to do with genes and genetic
information.

Genetic disease: A disease caused by an abnormality in an individual's genome.

Genetic testing: Tests done for clinical genetic purposes. Genetic tests may be done for ...

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Gliadin: A glycoprotein (a carbohydrate plus a protein) within gluten. Gliadin is found in...

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Gluten: A protein found in wheat or related grains and many foods that we eat. Gluten can ...

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Hypoalbuminemia: An abnormally low blood level of albumin. Normally, albumin is the most p...

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Hypocalcemia: Lower-than-normal level of calcium in the blood, which makes the nervous sys...

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Hypokalemia: Low blood potassium.

Hypomagnesemia: Low magnesium in the blood, which can occur due to inadequate intake or im...

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Immune: Protected against infection, usually by the presence of antibodies.

Immune system: A complex system that is responsible for distinguishing a person from every...

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Impotence: A common problem among men characterized by the consistent inability to sustai...

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Infection: The invasion and multiplication of microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses, an...

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Infertility: Diminished or absent ability to conceive and bear offspring. A couple is cons...

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Inflammation: A localized reaction that produces redness, warmth, swelling, and pain as a ...

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Intestinal gas: The complaint referred to as "intestinal gas" is a common one an...

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Intestinal obstruction: Blockage of the intestine by infolding (intussusception), malform...

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Intestine: The long, tubelike organ in the abdomen that completes the process of digestion...

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Iron: An essential mineral. Iron is necessary for the transport of oxygen (via hemoglobin ...

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JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association. JAMA began publication in 1883. JAM...

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Lactose: The sugar found in milk. Lactose is a large sugar molecule that is made up of two...

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Lactose intolerance: The inability to digest lactose, a component of milk and some other d...

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Large bowel: Another name for the large intestine.

Lymphoma: A tumor of the lymphoid tissue. The major types of lymphoma are Hodgkin's diseas...

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Magnesium: A mineral involved in many processes in the body including nerve signaling, the...

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Malabsorption: Poor intestinal absorption of nutrients. Malabsorption can occur from disea...

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Malnutrition: A term used to refer to any condition in which the body does not receive eno...

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Menstruation: The periodic blood that flows as a discharge from the uterus. Also called me...

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Mouth: 1. The upper opening of the digestive tract, beginning with the lips and con...

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Mucosa: Having to do with a mucous membrane. For example, the oral mucosa.

Muscle: Muscle is the tissue of the body which primarily functions as a source of power. T...

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Neck: The part of the body joining the head to the shoulders. Also, any narrow or constric...

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Nutrition: 1: The process of taking in food and using it for growth, metabolism, and repai...

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Obstruction: Blockage of a passageway. See, for example: Airway obstruction; Intestinal o...

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Onset: In medicine, the first appearance of the signs or symptoms of an illness as, for ex...

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Osteomalacia: Softening of bone, particularly in the sense of bone weakened by demineraliz...

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Osteoporosis: Thinning of the bones, with reduction in bone mass, due to depletion of calc...

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Pain: An unpleasant sensation that can range from mild, localized discomfort to agony. Pa...

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Potassium: The major positive ion (cation) found inside cells. The chemical notation for p...

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Pregnancy: The state of carrying a developing embryo or fetus within the female body. Thi...

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Pregnant: The state of carrying a developing fetus within the body.

Prevalence: The proportion of individuals in a population having a disease or characterist...

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Protein: One of the three nutrients used as energy sources (calories) by the body. Protein...

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Proteins: Large molecules composed of one or more chains of amino acids in a specific orde...

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Prothrombin: A coagulation (clotting) factor that is needed for the normal clotting of blo...

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Prothrombin time: A test that is done to gauge the integrity of part of the blood clotting...

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Radiology: The medical specialty concerned with radiation for the diagnosis and treatment ...

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Rash: Breaking out (eruption) of the skin. A rash can be caused by an underlying medical c...

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Red blood cell: The blood cell that carries oxygen. Red cells contain hemoglobin and it is...

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Red blood cells: The blood cells that carry oxygen. Red cells contain hemoglobin and it is...

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Relapse: The return of signs and symptoms of a disease after a remission.

Rickets: A disease of infants and children that disturbs normal bone formation (ossificati...

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Sensation: In medicine and physiology, sensation refers to the registration of an incoming...

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Sensory: Relating to sensation, to the perception of a stimulus, to the voyage made by inc...

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Serum: The clear liquid that can be separated from clotted blood. Serum differs from plas...

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Small intestine: The part of the digestive tract that extends from the stomach to the larg...

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Smooth muscle: Along with skeletal and cardiac muscle, one of the types of muscle tissue i...

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Stomach: The digestive organ that is located in the upper abdomen, under the ribs. The upp...

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Stress: In a medical or biological context stress is a physical, mental, or emotional fact...

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Surgery: The branch of medicine that employs operations in the treatment of disease or inj...

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Therapy: The treatment of disease. Therapy is synonymous with treatment.

Tiredness: See: Tired.

Villi: Plural of villus, a tiny finger-like or vascular projection.

Viral: Of or pertaining to a virus. For example, if a person has a viral rash, the rash wa...

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Viral infection: Infection caused by the presence of a virus in the body. Depending on th...

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Vital: Necessary to maintain life. For example, breathing is a vital function.

Vitamin D: A steroid vitamin which promotes the intestinal absorption and metabolism of ca...

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Vitamin K: One of two naturally occurring fat-soluble vitamins (vitamin K1 and vitamin K2)...

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Vitamins: The word "vitamin" was coined in 1911 by the Warsaw-born biochemist Casimir Funk...

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Weight loss: Weight loss is a decrease in body weight resulting from either voluntary (die...

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Medical Dictionary