Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD, is a U.S. board-certified Anatomic Pathologist with subspecialty training in the fields of Experimental and Molecular Pathology. Dr. Stöppler's educational background includes a BA with Highest Distinction from the University of Virginia and an MD from the University of North Carolina. She completed residency training in Anatomic Pathology at Georgetown University followed by subspecialty fellowship training in molecular diagnostics and experimental pathology.
Dr. Balentine received his undergraduate degree from McDaniel College in Westminster, Maryland. He attended medical school at the Philadelphia College of Osteopathic Medicine graduating in1983. He completed his internship at St. Joseph's Hospital in Philadelphia and his Emergency Medicine residency at Lincoln Medical and Mental Health Center in the Bronx, where he served as chief resident.
The most widely used treatments for cervical cancer are surgery and radiation therapy. Chemotherapy or biological therapy is sometimes used.
Treatment for invasive cervical cancer usually involves a team of specialists. The team generally includes a gynecologic oncologist and a radiation oncologist.
These doctors may decide to use one treatment method
or a combination of methods.
A woman may choose to take part in a clinical trial
(research study) to evaluate new treatment methods. Such studies are designed
to improve cancer treatment. Participating in a clinical trial has both
benefits and risks. Participation in clinical trials is always voluntary.
Cancerous cells typically invade surrounding tissues.
If a biopsy shows that cancerous cells have invaded through a layer called the basement membrane, which separates the surface layers of the cervix from other underlying layers, surgery is usually required.
The extent of the surgery varies, depending on the stage of the cancer.
Radiation therapy (also called radiotherapy) is also used to fight cervical cancer at some stages.
Radiation therapy uses high-energy rays to damage cancer cells and stop them from growing.
Like surgery, radiation therapy is local therapy; the radiation affects cancer cells only in the treated area.
Radiation may be applied externally or internally. Some women receive both kinds.
External radiation comes from a large machine, which aims a beam of radiation at the pelvis.
External radiation treatments usually are given five days a week for five to six weeks. At the end of that time, an extra dose of radiation called a "boost" may be applied to the tumor site.
Each treatment takes only a few minutes.
Because of safety concerns and expense of equipment, radiation therapy generally is offered only at certain large medical centers or hospitals.
Internal or implant radiation comes from a capsule containing radioactive material which is placed directly in the cervix.
The implant puts cancer-killing rays close to the tumor while sparing most of the healthy tissue around it.
It is usually left in place for one to three days, and the treatment may be repeated several times over the course of one to two weeks.
A woman stays in the hospital while the implants are in place.
Chemotherapy is the use of powerful drugs to kill cancer cells. In cervical cancer, it is used most often when the cancer has spread to other parts of the body. Just one drug or a combination of drugs may be given. Chemotherapy regimens are constantly changing and a woman should discuss the best treatment options with her physician.
Anticancer drugs used to treat cervical cancer may be
given via an intravenous (IV) line or by mouth.
Either way, chemotherapy is systemic treatment, meaning that the drugs flow through the body in the bloodstream. They can kill cancer cells anywhere in the body.
Chemotherapy is given in cycles. Each cycle comprises a period of intensive treatment followed by a recovery period. Treatment usually consists of several cycles.
Most patients have chemotherapy as an outpatient (in an outpatient clinic at the hospital, at the doctor's office, or at home). Depending on which drugs are given and a woman's general health, however, she may need to stay in the hospital during treatment.