Chemical Warfare (cont.)
IN THIS ARTICLE
1. Borak J, Sidell FR. Agents of chemical warfare: sulfur mustard. Ann Emerg Med. Mar 1992;21(3):303-8. [Medline].
2. Brennan RJ, Waeckerle JF, Sharp TW, Lillibridge SR. Chemical warfare agents: emergency medical and emergency public health issues. Ann Emerg Med. Aug 1999;34(2):191-204. [Medline].
3. Burgess JL, Kirk M, Borron SW, Cisek J. Emergency department hazardous materials protocol for contaminated patients. Ann Emerg Med. Aug 1999;34(2):205-12. [Medline].
5. Heyndrickx A. Chemical warfare injuries. Lancet. Feb 16 1991;337(8738):430. [Medline].
6. Holstege CP, Kirk M, Sidell FR. Chemical warfare. Nerve agent poisoning. Crit Care Clin. Oct 1997;13(4):923-42. [Medline].
7. Levitin HW, Siegelson HJ. Hazardous materials. Disaster medical planning and response. Emerg Med Clin North Am. May 1996;14(2):327-48. [Medline].
8. Murray VS, Volans GN. Management of injuries due to chemical weapons. BMJ. Jan 19 1991;302(6769):129-30. [Medline].
9. Nakajima T, Ohta S, Morita H, Midorikawa Y, Mimura S, Yanagisawa N. Epidemiological study of sarin poisoning in Matsumoto City, Japan. J Epidemiol. Mar 1998;8(1):33-41. [Medline].
10. Nozaki H, Hori S, Shinozawa Y, Fujishima S, Takuma K, Kimura H. Relationship between pupil size and acetylcholinesterase activity in patients exposed to sarin vapor. Intensive Care Med. Sep 1997;23(9):1005-7. [Medline].
11. Okudera H, Morita H, Iwashita T, Shibata T, Otagiri T, Kobayashi S. Unexpected nerve gas exposure in the city of Matsumoto: report of rescue activity in the first sarin gas terrorism. Am J Emerg Med. Sep 1997;15(5):527-8. [Medline].
12. Okumura T, Takasu N, Ishimatsu S, Miyanoki S, Mitsuhashi A, Kumada K. Report on 640 victims of the Tokyo subway sarin attack. Ann Emerg Med. Aug 1996;28(2):129-35. [Medline].
13. Pons P, Dart RC. Chemical incidents in the emergency department: if and when. Ann Emerg Med. Aug 1999;34(2):223-5. [Medline].
14. Ruhl CM, Park SJ, Danisa O, Morgan RF, Papirmeister B, Sidell FR. A serious skin sulfur mustard burn from an artillery shell. J Emerg Med. Mar-Apr 1994;12(2):159-66. [Medline].
15. Sidell FR. Chemical agent terrorism. Ann Emerg Med. Aug 1996;28(2):223-4. [Medline].
16. Sidell FR. What to do in case of an unthinkable chemical warfare attack or accident. Postgrad Med. Nov 15 1990;88(7):70-6, 81-4. [Medline].
17. Sidell FR, Borak J. Chemical warfare agents: II. Nerve agents. Ann Emerg Med. Jul 1992;21(7):865-71. [Medline].
18. Smith KJ, Hurst CG, Moeller RB, Skelton HG, Sidell FR. Sulfur mustard: its continuing threat as a chemical warfare agent, the cutaneous lesions induced, progress in understanding its mechanism of action, its long-term health effects, and new developments for protection and therapy. J Am Acad Dermatol. May 1995;32(5 Pt 1):765-76. [Medline].
19. Tucker JB. National health and medical services response to incidents of chemical and biological terrorism. JAMA. Aug 6 1997;278(5):362-8. [Medline].
Jeffrey L Arnold, MD, FACEP
Suzanne White, MD
Francisco Talavera, PharmD, PhD
Raymond J Roberge, MD, MPH, FAAEM, FACMT
Must Read Articles Related to Chemical Warfare
Read What Your Physician is Reading on Medscape
This article is for managers who prepare hospital operational plans, for leaders responsible for response activities within a hospital, and for hospital health care providers.