John P. Cunha, DO, is a U.S. board-certified Emergency Medicine Physician. Dr. Cunha's educational background includes a BS in Biology from Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey, and a DO from the Kansas City University of Medicine and Biosciences in Kansas City, MO. He completed residency training in Emergency Medicine at Newark Beth Israel Medical Center in Newark, New Jersey.
Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD, is a U.S. board-certified Anatomic Pathologist with subspecialty training in the fields of Experimental and Molecular Pathology. Dr. Stöppler's educational background includes a BA with Highest Distinction from the University of Virginia and an MD from the University of North Carolina. She completed residency training in Anatomic Pathology at Georgetown University followed by subspecialty fellowship training in molecular diagnostics and experimental pathology.
Postmenopausal women are at higher risk than premenopausal women. This is thought to be due to loss of the protective effects of the hormoneestrogen at
menopause. It was previously treated by hormone supplements (hormone replacement therapy, or HRT). However, research findings have changed our thinking on
HRT; long-term HRT is no longer recommended for most women.
Use of cocaine and similar stimulants.
Angina may be caused by spasm, narrowing, or partial blockage of an artery that supplies blood to the heart.
The most common cause is coronary heart disease, in
which a blood clot or buildup of fatty material inside the blood vessel
(atherosclerosis) reduces blood flow but does not completely block the blood
Women who use birth control pills and smoke cigarettes are at higher risk than women who have only one or neither of these risk factors (especially over the age of 35).
Spontaneous Pneumothorax Causes
(collapsed lung) occurs when the pressure balance between the sac that contains the lung and the outside atmosphere is disrupted.
Injury to the chest that pierces through to the lung
sac is the most common cause of this condition.
This can be caused by trauma, as in a car wreck, bad
fall, gunshot wound or stabbing, or in surgery.
Some very thin and tall people may suffer a
spontaneous pneumothorax due to stretched lung tissues and abnormal air sacs
in the upper portions of their lungs. It is possible for these abnormal air
sacs to rupture with even a sneeze or excessive coughing.