Robert Ferry Jr., MD, is a U.S. board-certified Pediatric Endocrinologist. After taking his baccalaureate degree from Yale College, receiving his doctoral degree and residency training in pediatrics at University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio (UTHSCSA), he completed fellowship training in pediatric endocrinology at The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia.
Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD, is a U.S. board-certified Anatomic Pathologist with subspecialty training in the fields of Experimental and Molecular Pathology. Dr. Stöppler's educational background includes a BA with Highest Distinction from the University of Virginia and an MD from the University of North Carolina. She completed residency training in Anatomic Pathology at Georgetown University followed by subspecialty fellowship training in molecular diagnostics and experimental pathology.
Circumcision is the surgical removal of the foreskin of the penis. The foreskin is a fold of skin that covers the tip of the penis (called the glans). Circumcision of infants has been practiced for centuries. Historically, circumcisions have been done for religious or social reasons.
Recently, controversy has emerged about circumcision.
Advocates recommending circumcision argue that circumcised males can practice better hygiene and display lower risk of developing cancer of the penis or urinary tract infections. Circumcision may also decrease risk of developing foreskin problems, such as phimosis (inability to retract the foreskin) or paraphimosis (retracted foreskin that cannot be put back into place).
Those opposed to circumcision argue that it is cruel, that few medical benefits are proven, that circumcised males will have decreased sexual feeling due to removing the sensitive foreskin, that it unnecessarily exposes male infants to potential surgical complications, and that children have rights to autonomy over their own bodies.
the United States, about 50% of male infants are circumcised, lower than the
rate of 80% circumcised during the 1980s.
Newborn circumcision is performed in the hospital's nursery or the doctor's office. Usually, a numbing cream is placed on the penis about 40 minutes before the penis is further numbed with a long-acting, local anesthetic. The surgery involves one of various ring-like clamps that are tightened over the foreskin. The foreskin is then removed with a scalpel or scissors. Alternately, a particular clamp may be left on and will fall off on its own in
five to eight days.