Cirrhosis Glossary of Terms

The following are health and medical definitions of terms that appear in the Cirrhosis article.

Abdomen: The belly, that part of the body that contains all of the structures between the...

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Abdominal: Relating to the abdomen, the belly, that part of the body that contains all of ...

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Abdominal pain: Pain in the belly. Abdominal pain can be acute or chronic. It may reflect ...

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Abnormal: Outside the expected norm, or uncharacteristic of a particular patient.

Absorption: Uptake. For example, intestinal absorption is the uptake of food (or other sub...

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Acetaminophen: A nonaspirin pain reliever or analgesic. Acetaminophen may be given alone t...

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Acute: Of abrupt onset, in reference to a disease. Acute often also connotes an illness th...

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Alcohol abuse: Use of alcoholic beverages to excess, either on individual occasions (binge...

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Alcoholism: Physical dependence on alcohol to the extent that stopping alcohol use would b...

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Alpha-1: Short for alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency.

Alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency: An inherited disorder characterized by a lack of the alpha...

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Artery: A vessel that carries blood high in oxygen content away from the heart to the far...

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Ascites: An abnormal accumulation of fluid within the abdomen. There are many causes of as...

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Atresia: Absence of a normal opening, or failure of a structure to be tubular. Atresia can...

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Autoimmune: Pertaining to autoimmunity, a misdirected immune response that occurs when the...

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Autoimmune hepatitis: A disease in which the body's immune system attacks liver cells, cau...

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Bacteria: Single-celled microorganisms that can exist either as independent (free-living) ...

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Bile: Bile is a yellow-green fluid that is made by the liver, stored in the gallbladder an...

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Biliary: Having to do with the gallbladder, bile ducts, or bile. The biliary system itself...

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Biliary atresia: Congenital absence or closure of the major bile ducts, the ducts that dra...

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Bilirubin: A yellow-orange compound that is produced by the breakdown of hemoglobin from r...

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Biopsy: The removal of a sample of tissue for examination under a microscope to check for ...

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Blood pressure: The blood pressure is the pressure of the blood within the arteries. It is...

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Brain: The portion of the central nervous system that is located within the skull. It func...

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Breathing: The process of respiration, during which air is inhaled into the lungs through ...

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Cancer: An abnormal growth of cells which tend to proliferate in an uncontrolled way and, ...

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Cardiac: Having to do with the heart.

Cell: The basic structural and functional unit of any living thing. Each cell is a small c...

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Chronic: In medicine, lasting a long time. A chronic condition is one that lasts 3 months ...

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Circulation: In medicine, the movement of fluid through the body in a regular or circuitou...

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Circulatory: Having to do with circulation, the movement of fluid in a regular or circuito...

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Circulatory system: The system that moves blood throughout the body. The circulatory syste...

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Cirrhosis: Liver disease characterized by irreversible scarring. Alcohol and viral hepatit...

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Colchicine: A substance found in a plant that is used in clinical medicine for the treatme...

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Coma: A state of deep, unarousable unconsciousness. A coma may occur as a result of head t...

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Complication: In medicine, an unanticipated problem that arises following, and is a result...

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Compress: Cloth or another material applied under pressure to an area of the skin and held...

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Congestion: An abnormal or excessive accumulation of a body fluid. The term is used broadl...

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Coronary artery disease: Impedance or blockage of one or more arteries that supply blood t...

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CT scan: Computed tomography scan. Detailed images of internal organs are obtained by this...

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Cure: 1. To heal, to make well, to restore to good health. 2. A time withou...

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Cystic fibrosis: A common grave genetic disease that affects the exocrine glands and is ch...

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Dehydration: Excessive loss of body water. Diseases of the gastrointestinal tract that cau...

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Delirium: A sudden state of severe confusion and rapid changes in brain function, sometime...

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Diabetes: Usually refers to diabetes mellitus or, less often, to diabetes insipidus. Diabe...

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Diagnosis: 1 The nature of a disease; the identification of an illness. 2 A ...

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Diarrhea: A common condition that involves unusually frequent and liquid bowel movements. ...

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Diuretic: Something that promotes the formation of urine by the kidney. All diuretics caus...

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Donor: The giver of a tissue or an organ, such as a blood donor or kidney donor.

Duct: A walled passageway, such as a lymph duct, that carries fluid from one place to anot...

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Edema: The swelling of soft tissues as a result of excess fluid accumulation. Edema is oft...

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Emergency department: The department of a hospital responsible for the provision of medica...

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Encephalopathy: Disease, damage, or malfunction of the brain. In general, encephalopathy i...

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Esophagus: The tube that connects the pharynx (throat) with the stomach. The esophagus lie...

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Essential: In medicine, of unknown cause, as in essential hypertension (high blood pressur...

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Fatigue: A condition characterized by a lessened capacity for work and reduced efficiency ...

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Fats: Plural of the word "fat". See the definition of fat.

Feces: The excrement discharged from the 'intestines.

Fever: Although a fever technically is any body temperature above the normal of 98.6 F (37...

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Galactosemia: An inherited disorder of galactose metabolism that occurs in newborns and ca...

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Gallbladder: A pear-shaped organ located below the liver that stores the bile secreted by ...

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Gallstones: Stones that form when substances in the bile harden. Gallstones can be as smal...

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Gastrointestinal: Adjective referring collectively to the stomach and small and large inte...

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Genetic: Having to do with genes and genetic
information.

Glycogen storage disease: One of the multiple inherited disorders of metabolism that inter...

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Gynecomastia: Excessive development of the male breasts. Temporary enlargement of the brea...

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Heart: The muscle that pumps blood received from veins into arteries throughout the body. ...

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Heart disease: Any disorder that affects the heart. Sometimes the term "heart disease" is ...

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Heart failure: Inability of the heart to keep up with the demands on it and, specifically...

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Heart muscle: A type of muscle with unique features only found in the heart. The heart mus...

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Hemochromatosis: An inherited disorder characterized by abnormally high absorption of iron...

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Hemorrhoids: Dilated (enlarged) veins in the walls of the anus and sometimes around the re...

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Hepatic: Having to do with the liver.

Hepatic encephalopathy: Brain dysfunction directly due to liver dysfunction, most often re...

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Hepatitis: Inflammation of the liver, irrespective of the cause. Hepatitis is caused by a ...

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Hepatitis B: Inflammation of the liver due to the hepatitis B virus (HBV), once thought to...

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Hepatitis C: Inflammation of the liver due to the hepatitis C virus (HCV), which is usuall...

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Hepatitis D: Liver inflammation due to the hepatitis D virus (HDV), which causes disease o...

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Hormone: A chemical substance produced in the body that controls and regulates the activit...

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Hypertension: High blood pressure, defined as a repeatedly elevated blood pressure exceedi...

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Ibuprofen: A nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) that is commonly used to treat pa...

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Immune: Protected against infection, usually by the presence of antibodies.

Immune system: A complex system that is responsible for distinguishing a person from every...

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Immunization: Vaccination. Immunizations work by stimulating the immune system, the natur...

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Incidence: The frequency with which something, such as a disease or trait, appears in a pa...

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Infection: The invasion and multiplication of microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses, an...

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Inflammation: A localized reaction that produces redness, warmth, swelling, and pain as a ...

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Injure: To harm, hurt, or wound. The word injure may be in physical or emotional sense. Fr...

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Injury: Harm or hurt. To harm, hurt, or wound. The word injure may be in physical or emot...

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Iron: An essential mineral. Iron is necessary for the transport of oxygen (via hemoglobin ...

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Itching: An uncomfortable sensation in the skin that feels as if something is crawling on ...

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Jaundice: Yellow staining of the skin and sclerae (the whites of the eyes) by abnormally h...

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Kidney: One of a pair of organs located in the right and left side of the abdomen. The kid...

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Laparoscope: An instrument through which structures within the abdomen and pelvis can be s...

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Liver: The largest solid organ in the body, situated in the upper part of the abdomen on t...

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Liver biopsy: A procedure in which a small sample of the liver is removed for the diagnosi...

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Liver disease: Liver disease refers to any disorder of the liver. The liver is a large org...

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Liver transplant: Surgery to remove a diseased liver and replace it with a healthy liver (...

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Lungs: The lungs are a pair of breathing organs located with the chest which remove carbon...

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Malnutrition: A term used to refer to any condition in which the body does not receive eno...

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Medical history: 1. In clinical medicine, the patient's past and present which may ...

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Menstrual: Pertaining to menstruation (the menses), as in last menstrual period, menstrua...

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Metabolism: The whole range of biochemical processes that occur within a living organism. ...

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Microscope: An optical instrument that augments the power of the eye to see small objects....

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Muscle: Muscle is the tissue of the body which primarily functions as a source of power. T...

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Nausea: Stomach queasiness, the urge to vomit. Nausea can be brought on by many causes, in...

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Nose: The external midline projection from the face. The purpose of the nose is to warm, c...

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Obesity: The state of being well above one's normal weight.

Operation: In medicine, a surgical procedure. Many operations are named after persons. The...

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Organ: A relatively independent part of the body that carries out one or more special func...

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Outpatient: A patient who is not hospitalized, but instead comes to a physician?s office, ...

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Oxygen: The odorless gas that is present in the air and necessary to maintain life. Oxygen...

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Pain: An unpleasant sensation that can range from mild, localized discomfort to agony. Pa...

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Poison: Any substance that can cause severe organ damage or death if ingested, breathed in...

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Protein: One of the three nutrients used as energy sources (calories) by the body. Protein...

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Protein malnutrition: Insufficient intake of nitrogen-containing food (protein) to mainta...

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Proteins: Large molecules composed of one or more chains of amino acids in a specific orde...

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Radioisotope: A version of a chemical element that has an unstable nucleus and emits radia...

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Rectum: The last 6 to 8 inches of the large intestine. The rectum stores solid waste until...

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Rib: One of the 12 paired arches of bone that form the skeletal structure of the chest wal...

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Rib cage: The structure formed by the thoracic vertebrae and ribs, the sternum (breastbone...

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Scan: As a noun, the data or image obtained from the examination of organs or regions of...

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Sensitivity: 1. In psychology, the quality of being sensitive. As, for example, sen...

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Stomach: The digestive organ that is located in the upper abdomen, under the ribs. The upp...

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Stool: The solid matter that is discharged in a bowel movement.

Substance: 1. Material with particular features.
2. The material that...

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Supportive care: Treatment given to prevent, control, or relieve complications and side ef...

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Surgery: The branch of medicine that employs operations in the treatment of disease or inj...

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Syndrome: A combination of symptoms and signs that together represent a disease process.

Tear: A drop of the salty secretion of the lacrimal glands which serves to moisten the con...

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Testes: Plural of testis.

Tiredness: See: Tired.

Tobacco: A South American herb (Nicotiana tabacum) whose leaves contain 2 to 8 percent nic...

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Transplant: The grafting of a tissue from one place to another, just as in botany a bu...

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Tubes: The "tubes" are medically known as the Fallopian tubes. There are two Fallopian tub...

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Tylenol: See: Acetaminophen.

Ultrasound: High-frequency sound waves. Ultra-sound waves can be bounced off tissues by us...

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UNOS: United Network for Organ Sharing.

Vaccination: Injection of a killed microbe in order to stimulate the immune system against...

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Varicose veins: See: Varicose vein.

Vein: A blood vessel that carries blood that is low in oxygen content from the body back t...

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Viral: Of or pertaining to a virus. For example, if a person has a viral rash, the rash wa...

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Viral infection: Infection caused by the presence of a virus in the body. Depending on th...

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Viruses: Small living particles that can infect cells and change how the cells function. I...

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Vitamin A: Vitamin A is retinol. Carotene compounds (found, for example, in egg yolk, butt...

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Vitamins: The word "vitamin" was coined in 1911 by the Warsaw-born biochemist Casimir Funk...

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Vomit: Matter from the stomach that has come up into and may be ejected beyond the mouth, ...

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Wasting: 1. Gradual loss (for example, of weight), deterioration, emaciation. As in...

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Water retention: A nonspecific term meaning the accumulation of excess fluids in body tiss...

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Weight loss: Weight loss is a decrease in body weight resulting from either voluntary (die...

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Medical Dictionary