Font Size
A
A
A

Club Drugs (cont.)

Authors and Editors

Author: Roxanne Dryden-Edwards, MD

Editor: Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD, Chief Medical Editor, eMedicineHealth

Previous contributing authors and editors:

Author: Douglas C Finefrock, DO, Staff Physician, Department of Emergency Medicine, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Beth Israel Medical Center.

Coauthor(s): Mai Kim Lai, MD, Staff Physician, Department of Emergency Medicine, Sparrow Hospital, Michigan State University College of Human Medicine; Karen Tonya Mason, MD, Director of Medical Student Education, Department of Emergency Medicine, Beth Israel Medical Center.

Editors: James E Keany, MD, FACEP, Director of Emergency Medical Education, Department of Emergency Medicine, Mission Hospital Regional Medical Center and Children's Hospital at Miss; Francisco Talavera, PharmD, PhD, Senior Pharmacy Editor, eMedicine; Anthony Anker, MD, FAAEM, Attending Physician, Emergency Department, Mary Washington Hospital, Fredericksburg, VA.

REFERENCES:

American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Treatment Revision. Washington, D.C.: American Psychiatric Association, 2000.

American Psychiatric Association. Practice Guideline and Resources for Treatment of Patients with Substance Use Disorders, Second Edition. Arlington, Virginia: American Psychiatric Association, 2006.

Anglin, D., K.L. Spears, and H.R. Hutson. "Flunitrazepam and its involvement in date or acquaintance rape." Acad Emerg Med. 4.4 Apr. 1997: 323-326.

Arria, A.M., G.S. Yacoubian, E. Fost, and E.D. Wish. "The pediatric forum: ecstasy use among club rave attendees." Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 156.3 Mar. 2002: 295-296.

Bialer, P.A. "Designer drugs in the general hospital." Psychiatr Clin North Am. 25.1 Mar. 2002: 231-243.

Brodie, J.D., B.G. Case, E. Figueroa, et al. "Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of vigabatrin for the treatment of cocaine dependence in Mexican parolees." American Journal of Psychiatry 166 (2009): 1269-1277.

Chermack, S.T., R.L. Murray, M.A. Walton, B.A. Booth, J. Wryobeck, and F.C. Blow. "Partner aggression among men and women in substance use disorder treatment: correlates of psychological and physical aggression and injury." Drug and Alcohol Dependence 98 (1-2) Nov. 2008: 35-44.

Compton, W.M., Y.F. Thomas, F.S. Stinson, and B.F. Grant. "Prevalence, correlates, disability and comorbidity of DSM-IV drug abuse and dependence in the United States." Archives of General Psychiatry 64.5 (2007): 566-576.

Craig, K., H.F. Gomez, J.L. McManus, and T.C. Bania. "Severe gamma-hydroxybutyrate withdrawal: a case report and literature review." J Emerg Med. 18.1 Jan 2000: 65-70.

Ellenhorn, M.J., D.G. Barceloux, eds. "Amphetamines and designer drugs." In: Ellenhorn's Medical Toxicology. 2nd ed. Baltimore, Md: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 1997: 340-348.

Etheridge, R.M., J.C. Smith, J.L. Rounds-Bryant, and R.L. Hubbard. "Drug abuse treatment and comprehensive services for adolescents." Journal of Adolescent Research  16 (2001): 563-589.

Glennon, R.A., R. Young, M. Dukat, et al. "N-Methyl-1-(4-methoxyphenyl)-2-aminopropane (PMMA) and N-Methyl-1-(3,4-methylenedioxyphenyl)-2-aminopropane (MDMA) Produce Nonidentical Discriminative Stimuli in Rats." Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior 86.3 Mar. 2007: 477-484.

Goldman, L.S., M. Genel, R.J. Bezman, and P.J. Slanetz. "Diagnosis and treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in children and adolescents. Council on Scientific Affairs, American Medical Association." JAMA. 279.14 Apr. 8, 1998: 1100-1107.

Hearing Before the Senate Caucus on International Narcotics Control. Looking the Other Way: Rave Promoters and Club Drugs. 107th Cong (Dec 2001) (testimony of G.R. Hanson, National Institute on Drug Abuse).

Iwata, K., G.B. O'Keefe, and A. Karanas. "Neurologic problems associated with chronic nitrous oxide abuse in a non-healthcare worker." Am J Med Sci. 322.3 Sept. 2001: 173-174.

Johnston, L.D., P.M. O'Malley, J.G. Bachman, and J.E. Schulenberg. Monitoring the Future: National Survey Results on Drug Use, 1975-2008, Volume II. Bethesda, Md.: National Institute on Drug Abuse, U.S. Dept. of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health, 2009.

Klein-Schwartz, W. "Abuse and toxicity of methylphenidate." Curr Opin Pediatr. 14.2 Apr. 2002: 219-23.

Koesters, S.C., P.D. Rogers, and C.R. Rajasingham. "MDMA ('ecstasy') and other 'club drugs'. The new epidemic." Pediatr Clin North Am. 49.2 Apr. 2002: 415-433.

Llana, M.E., and M.L. Crismon. "Methylphenidate: increased abuse or appropriate use?" J Am Pharm Assoc (Wash). 39.4 July-Aug. 1999: 526-530.

Marx, J.A., ed. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice. 5th ed. St. Louis, Mo: Mosby, 2002: 2119-2215.

McCann, U.D., V. Eligulashvili, and G.A. Ricaurte. "(+/-)3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine ('Ecstasy')-induced serotonin neurotoxicity: clinical studies." Neuropsychobiology. 42.1 (2000): 11-16.

McCann, U.D., Z. Szabo, U. Scheffel, et al. "Positron emission tomographic evidence of toxic effect of MDMA ("Ecstasy") on brain serotonin neurons in human beings." Lancet. 352.9138 Oct. 31, 1998: 1433-1437.

Smith, K.M., L.L. Larive, and F. Romanelli. "Club drugs: methylenedioxymethamphetamine, flunitrazepam, ketamine hydrochloride, and gamma-hydroxybutyrate." Am J Health Syst Pharm. 59.11 June 1, 2002: 1067-1076.

Volkow, N.D., J.S. Fowler, G.J. Wang, et al. "Decreased dopamine D2 receptor availability is associated with reduced frontal metabolism in cocaine abusers." Synapse. 14.2 June 1993: 169-177.

Volkow, N.D., R. Hitzemann, G.J. Wang, et al. "Long-term frontal brain metabolic changes in cocaine abusers." Synapse. 11.3 July 1992: 184-190.

Weiner, A.L. "Emerging drugs of abuse in Connecticut." Conn Med. 64.1 Jan. 2000: 19-23.

Winek, C.L., W.W. Wahba, and L. Rozin. "Accidental death by nitrous oxide inhalation." Forensic Sci Int. 73.2 May 22, 1995: 139-141.

Wu, L.T., W.E. Schlenger, and D.M. Galvin. "Concurrent use of methamphetamine, MDMA, LSD, ketamine, GHB, and flunitrazepam among American youths." Drug and Alcohol Dependence 84.1 Sept. 2006: 102-113.

Zuckerman, M.D., and E.W. Boyer. "HIV and club drugs in emerging adulthood." Current Opinion in Pediatrics 24.2 Apr. 2012: 219-224.


Last Editorial Review: 5/2/2012

Must Read Articles Related to Club Drugs

Benzodiazepine Abuse
Benzodiazepine Abuse Benzodiazepines are a type of medication known as tranquilizers. Familiar names include Valium and Xanax. They are some of the most commonly prescribed medicati...learn more >>
Substance Abuse
Substance Abuse People abuse substances such as drugs, alcohol, and tobacco for varied and complicated reasons, but it is clear that our society pays a significant cost. Sympto...learn more >>




Read What Your Physician is Reading on Medscape

Toxicity, MDMA »

The substance 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA [ie, ecstasy, XTC, Adam, E, X, clarity, Stacy]) is an amphetamine derivative that has gained significant popularity in recent years and has become the recreational drug of choice for many adolescents and young adults.

Read More on Medscape Reference »


Medical Dictionary