Cognitive Deficits Glossary of Terms

The following are health and medical definitions of terms that appear in the Cognitive Deficits article.

Abnormal: Outside the expected norm, or uncharacteristic of a particular patient.

Acquired: Not inherited, or present at birth (congenital), but developing after birth. For...

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American Psychiatric Association: A medical specialty society with over 35,000 US and inte...

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Analysis: In psychology, a term for conversation-based therapeutic processes used to gain ...

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Anxiety: A feeling of apprehension and fear, characterized by physical symptoms such as pa...

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Assisted living: A type of long-term care facility for elderly or disabled people who are ...

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Attentional: Relating to attention. The term is used in psychology and child development a...

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Audiology: The study of hearing.

Brain: The portion of the central nervous system that is located within the skull. It func...

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Cardiac: Having to do with the heart.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: The US agency charged with tracking and invest...

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Cerebral: Of or pertaining to the cerebrum or the brain.

Cerebral palsy: An abnormality of motor function (the ability to move and control movement...

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Chromosome: A carrier of genetic information that is visible under an ordinary light micro...

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Cognitive: Having to do with thought, judgment, or knowledge.

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Developmental delay: A condition in which a child is behind schedule in reaching milestone...

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Diagnosis: 1 The nature of a disease; the identification of an illness. 2 A ...

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DNA: Deoxyribonucleic acid. One of two types of molecules that encode genetic information...

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Down syndrome: A common birth defect that is usually due to an extra chromosome 21 (trisom...

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DSM-IV: Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition, the officia...

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Endocrine: Pertaining to hormones and the glands that make and secrete them into the blood...

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Food and Drug Administration: An agency within the US Public Health Service that provides ...

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Fragile X syndrome: The most common heritable form of mental retardation. Fragile X syndro...

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Galactosemia: An inherited disorder of galactose metabolism that occurs in newborns and ca...

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Genetic: Having to do with genes and genetic
information.

Genetic counseling: An educational counseling process for individuals and families who hav...

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Hygiene: The science of preventive medicine and the preservation of health. Also commonly ...

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Infant: A young baby, from birth to 12 months of age.

Intelligence quotient: An attempt to measure the intelligence of someone. Abbreviated IQ....

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Intelligence test: A questionnaire or series of exercises designed to measure intelligence...

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Intervention: The act of intervening, interfering or interceding with the intent of modify...

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Malnutrition: A term used to refer to any condition in which the body does not receive eno...

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Maple syrup urine disease: A hereditary disease that is due to deficiency of an enzyme inv...

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Melatonin: A hormone that is produced by the pineal gland and is intimately involved in re...

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Memory: 1. The ability to recover information about past events or knowledge. ...

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Menstruation: The periodic blood that flows as a discharge from the uterus. Also called me...

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Mental retardation: The condition of having an IQ measured as below 70 to 75 and significa...

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Motor: Something that produces or refers to motion. For example, a motor neuron is a nerve...

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MRI: Magnetic resonance imaging.

Nursing: 1) Profession concerned with the provision of services essential to the maintena...

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Oxygen: The odorless gas that is present in the air and necessary to maintain life. Oxygen...

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Palsy: Paralysis, generally partial, whereby a local body area is incapable of voluntary m...

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Percentile: The percentage of individuals in a group who have achieved a certain quantity'...

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Perinatal: Pertaining to the period immediately before and after birth. The perinatal peri...

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Phenylketonuria: The inherited inability to metabolize (process) the essential amino acid ...

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Physical therapy: A branch of rehabilitative health that uses specially designed exercises...

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Physiologic: Something that is normal, that is due neither to anything pathologic nor sign...

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Prematurity: Historically, the definition of prematurity was 2500 grams (about 5 1/2 pound...

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Prenatal: Occurring or existing before birth.

Prenatal care: Health care that a pregnant woman receives from an obstetrician or a midwif...

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Probe: 1: In surgery, a probe is a slender flexible rod with a blunt end used to explore, ...

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Prognosis: The forecast of the probable outcome or course of a disease; the patient's chan...

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Psychiatric: Pertaining to or within the purview of psychiatry, the medical specialty conc...

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Puberty: Adolescence, the period in which the human body first becomes capable of reproduc...

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Quotient: The result of mathematical division.

Recuperate: To recover health and strength. Also known as convalesce.

Rehabilitation: The process of helping a person who has suffered an illness or injury rest...

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Seizure: Uncontrolled electrical activity in the brain, which may produce a physical conv...

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Sensory: Relating to sensation, to the perception of a stimulus, to the voyage made by inc...

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Sibling: A brother or sister.

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Sleep: The body's rest cycle.

Spina bifida: A major birth defect and a type of neural tube defect that involves an openi...

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Suicidal: Pertaining to suicide. the taking of ones own life. As in a suicidal gesture, su...

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Syndrome: A combination of symptoms and signs that together represent a disease process.

Therapeutic: Relating to therapeutics, the branch of medicine that is concerned specifical...

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Therapy: The treatment of disease. Therapy is synonymous with treatment.

Thyroid: 1. The thyroid gland. Also, pertaining to the thyroid gland. 2. A p...

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Toddler: A young child who is learning to walk with short unsteady steps. The word toddle ...

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Trauma: A physical or emotional injury.

Urine: Liquid waste produced by the kidneys. Urine is a clear, transparent fluid that norm...

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