Dr. Shiel received a Bachelor of Science degree with honors from the University of Notre Dame. There he was involved in research in radiation biology and received the Huisking Scholarship. After graduating from St. Louis University School of Medicine, he completed his Internal Medicine residency and Rheumatology fellowship at the University of California, Irvine. He is board-certified in Internal Medicine and Rheumatology.
Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD, is a U.S. board-certified Anatomic Pathologist with subspecialty training in the fields of Experimental and Molecular Pathology. Dr. Stöppler's educational background includes a BA with Highest Distinction from the University of Virginia and an MD from the University of North Carolina. She completed residency training in Anatomic Pathology at Georgetown University followed by subspecialty fellowship training in molecular diagnostics and experimental pathology.
Frostbitten body parts are white and hard or waxy. They may be white-purple or white-yellow.
Frostnipped parts are white but not hard and are generally very small areas.
Frozen parts have no feeling.
During the freezing process, they may tingle or feel like a block of wood.
Once frostbitten areas thaw, they may be painless or tingle.
When they are rapidly rewarmed in warm water by the recommended method, they may be painful.
Over the next few days, the part is often painful and swollen.
Blisters may appear, and severely affected areas turn black.
Areas affected by immersion injury are first red and then turn pale and swollen.
Numbness or painful tingling may occur.
After the first few days, the part becomes very red, tingling, swollen, and may have blisters, skin breakdown, or even liquefy.
Pernio is a rash on the lower legs, feet, toes, hands, or ears that may be red or blue and may form scaly areas or lumps.
Rarely, affected parts may bleed, blister, or have skin breakdown.
Often pernio causes itching and burning.
Raynaud's phenomenon refers to constriction of the blood vessels of the hands or feet in response to cold exposure. Raynaud's phenomenon causes white, then blue, then red-colored fingertips and toes and is often painful.
Cryoglobulins cause a wide array of symptoms, depending on whether or not internal organs are involved, including deep-blue fingertips.
Cold urticaria refers to raised red bumps or hives produced in response to cold exposure.