John P. Cunha, DO, is a U.S. board-certified Emergency Medicine Physician. Dr. Cunha's educational background includes a BS in Biology from Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey, and a DO from the Kansas City University of Medicine and Biosciences in Kansas City, MO. He completed residency training in Emergency Medicine at Newark Beth Israel Medical Center in Newark, New Jersey.
On the day of the colonoscopy, the patient may be asked to arrive early to
prepare for the test itself, and to ask further questions.
The patient will be asked the following questions:
When did you last eat?
What allergies do you have?
Did you remember to take all your bowel preparation medication?
Once the patient has changed into an examination gown, vital signs (blood pressure, heart rate, respiration rate, and temperature) will be monitored and an intravenous line (IV) will be placed to
sedate the patient, and provide pain medication during the test, if necessary. Although
the patient will not be fully asleep during the procedure, these medications will produce a sleepy state (sedation) and make the test more comfortable.
The procedure will begin with the patient lying flat on the left side. The equipment used, the colonoscope, is lubricated to allow it to enter the anus. For a thorough investigation, air is required to gently open the folded colon. This may cause a temporary uncomfortable bloated sensation. When the doctor applies gentle pressure, the colonoscope moves further into the colon and is slowly advanced until the entire colon is seen.
The colonoscope has a tiny camera on the end of it, which is connected to a monitor. This allows the physician to see the colon through the tip of the instrument even when it is far inside the body. As the scope passes the course of the colon, the normal turns and contours of the colon may impede the passage of the scope.
The patient may be asked to change positions for better visualization. It is common for fluid and gas to escape through the rectum and anus; this should be expected. The entire procedure can take from 30 minutes up to 1 hour.
In addition to simply viewing the bowel wall, the colonoscope has special attachments that allow the doctor to collect tissue samples or biopsies, remove small growths, and stop bleeding with laser, heat, or medication.