Coma Topic Guide
Coma: Coma is a state of unconsciousness in which the patient does not consiously respond to the environment and stimuli. Causes of coma include head trauma, bleeding in the brain, skull fractures, brain swelling, lack of oxygen to the brain, poisons, and endocrine disorders. The Glasgow Coma Scale is a tool physicians use to rate the depth of coma of a patient. The outlook of coma for a patient depends on the cause of the coma and the damage to the brain and other organs of the patient's body.
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Encephalopathy Encephalopathy (abnormal brain function) has a variety of causes. Generally, they stem from lack of nutrients, infection, poisoning, structural changes, or anoxia. Within these categories encephalopathy can be cause from lack of oxygen during childbirth, stroke, head injury, liver disease, kidney disease, high blood pressure, bacterial, viral, or fungal infections, ischemia, and metabolic dysfunction. Treatment of encephalopathy depends on the cause.