Congenital Heart Defects That Cause Aortic Valve Stenosis
A congenital heart defect is a malformation that has been present since birth. The most common heart defect that causes aortic valve stenosis is a bicuspid aortic valve. A normal (tricuspid) aortic valve has three flaps, or leaflets. A bicuspid valve has only two leaflets. See a picture of a bicuspid valve.
This abnormal valve structure causes rough, turbulent blood flow, which over the years can lead to stenosis through the same degenerative process that occurs in normal valves. The main difference is that people who have bicuspid valves will typically develop stenosis in their 30s or 40s and people who have normal valves develop stenosis after age 50 or 60.
People who have a bicuspid valve are also more likely than other people to get an infection (infective endocarditis) that can cause the aortic valve to become leaky (aortic regurgitation) as well as narrow.
Two less common congenital defects can cause aortic valve stenosis:
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