Crohn's Disease Glossary of Terms

The following are health and medical definitions of terms that appear in the Crohn's Disease article.

Abdomen: The belly, that part of the body that contains all of the structures between the...

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Abnormal: Outside the expected norm, or uncharacteristic of a particular patient.

Abscess: A local accumulation of pus anywhere in the body. The following are some example...

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Absorb: 1. To take something in, as through the skin or the intestine.
2....

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Absorption: Uptake. For example, intestinal absorption is the uptake of food (or other sub...

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Acute: Of abrupt onset, in reference to a disease. Acute often also connotes an illness th...

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Albumin: The main protein in human blood and the key to regulating the osmotic pressure of...

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Anemia: The condition of having a lower-than-normal number of red blood cells or quantity ...

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Antibiotic: A drug used to treat infections caused by bacteria and other microorganisms. ...

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Antibody: An immunoglobulin, a specialized immune protein, produced because of the introdu...

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Antigen: A substance that the immune system perceives as being foreign or dangerous. The b...

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Anus: The opening of the rectum to the outside of the body.

Aspirin: Once the Bayer trademark for acetylsalicylic acid, now the common name for this a...

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Autoimmune: Pertaining to autoimmunity, a misdirected immune response that occurs when the...

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Autoimmune disease: An illness that occurs when the body tissues are attacked by its own i...

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Autoimmunity: A misdirected immune response that occurs when the immune system goes awry a...

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Bacterium: The singular of bacteria.

Barium: 1. A metallic element belonging to the alkaline earths with an atomic numbe...

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Barium enema: An enema using a white, chalky solution containing barium, in preparation fo...

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Belly: That part of the body that contains all of the structures between the chest and t...

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Belly button: The navel or umbilicus; the former site of attachment of the umbilical cord....

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Bile: Bile is a yellow-green fluid that is made by the liver, stored in the gallbladder a...

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Biopsy: The removal of a sample of tissue for examination under a microscope to check for ...

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Bladder: A hollow organ in the lower abdomen that stores urine. The kidneys filter waste f...

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Blood count: The calculated number of white or red blood cells (WBCs or RBCs) in a cubic m...

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Bowel: The small and large intestine.

Bypass: An operation in which a new pathway is created for the transport of substances in ...

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C-reactive protein: An acute-phase plasma protein whose blood concentration reflects the p...

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Cancer: An abnormal growth of cells which tend to proliferate in an uncontrolled way and, ...

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Carcinoma: Cancer that begins in the skin or in tissues that line or cover body organs. Ex...

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CBC: A commonly used abbreviation in medicine that stands for complete blood count, a set...

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Cecum: The first portion of the large bowel, which is situated in the lower-right quadrant...

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Cell: The basic structural and functional unit of any living thing. Each cell is a small c...

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Cholangitis: Inflammation of the bile duct. From cholangi-, pertaining to a bile duct + -i...

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Chronic: In medicine, lasting a long time. A chronic condition is one that lasts 3 months ...

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Chronic illness: An illness that lasts 3 months or more.

Colectomy: An operation to remove all or part of the colon (large intestine). In a partial...

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Colitis: Inflammation of the large intestine (the colon). There are many forms of coliti...

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Colon: The long, coiled, tubelike organ that removes water from digested food. The remaini...

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Colon cancer: A malignant tumor arising from the inner wall of the large intestine (the co...

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Colonic: 1. See: Colonic (adjective). 2. See: Colonic (noun).

Colonoscopy: A procedure whereby a physician inserts a viewing tube (colonoscope) into the...

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Colostomy: An artificial exit from the colon created to divert waste through a hole in the...

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Complete blood count: A set values of the cellular (formed elements) of blood. These meas...

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Complication: In medicine, an unanticipated problem that arises following, and is a result...

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Constipation: Infrequent and frequently incomplete bowel movements. Constipation is the op...

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Contrast: Short for "contrast media." Contrast media are X-ray dyes used to provide contra...

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Crohn's disease: A chronic inflammatory disease, primarily involving the small and large ...

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CT scan: Computerized tomography scan. Pictures of structures within the body created by a...

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Cure: 1. To heal, to make well, to restore to good health. 2. A time withou...

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Dehydration: Excessive loss of body water. Diseases of the gastrointestinal tract that ca...

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Diagnosis: 1 The nature of a disease; the identification of an illness. 2 A ...

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Diarrhea: A common condition that involves unusually frequent and liquid bowel movements. ...

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Digestive system: The system of organs responsible for getting food into and out of the bo...

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Duct: A walled passageway, such as a lymph duct, that carries fluid from one place to anot...

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Endoscope: A lighted optical instrument that is used to get a deep look inside the body. A...

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Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography: Abbreviated ERCP. A procedure done to diag...

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Endoscopy: Examination of the inside of the body by using a lighted, flexible instrument c...

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Enema: Liquid injected into the rectum. An enema may be used for therapeutic (such as to s...

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ERCP: Endoscopic retrograde cholangio-pancreatography, a diagnostic procedure used to exam...

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Erythrocyte: A cell that contains hemoglobin and can carry oxygen to the body. Also called...

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Family history: The family structure and relationships within the family, including inform...

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Fatigue: A condition characterized by a lessened capacity for work and reduced efficiency ...

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Fats: Plural of the word "fat". See the definition of fat.

Feces: The excrement discharged from the 'intestines.

Fever: Although a fever technically is any body temperature above the normal of 98.6 degr...

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Fiber: The parts of fruits and vegetables that cannot be digested. Fiber is of vital impor...

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Fistula: An abnormal passageway in the body. The fistula may go from the body surface int...

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Flare: 1. an exacerbation of a chronic disease. Sometimes referred to as a flare-up, a fla...

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Folic acid: One of the B vitamins that is a key factor in the synthesis (the making) of nu...

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Gallstones: Stones that form when substances in the bile harden. Gallstones can be as smal...

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Gastroenteritis: Inflammation of the stomach and the intestines. Gastroenteritis can cause...

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Gastroenterology: The medical specialty devoted to the study, diagnosis and treatment of d...

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Gastrointestinal: Adjective referring collectively to the stomach and small and large inte...

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Genetics: The scientific study of heredity. Genetics pertains to humans and all other orga...

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Hemorrhage: Bleeding or the abnormal flow of blood.

Ileostomy: An opening into the ileum, part of the small intestine, from the outside of the...

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Immune: Protected against infection, usually by the presence of antibodies.

Immune response: Any reaction by the immune system. For example, poison ivy can cause an i...

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Immune system: A complex system that is responsible for distinguishing a person from every...

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Immunosuppressant: An agent that can suppress or prevent the immune response. Immunosuppre...

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Immunosuppressive: 1. Pertaining to immunosuppression, the suppression of the immun...

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Incidence: The frequency with which something, such as a disease or trait, appears in a pa...

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Indicate: In medicine, to make a treatment or procedure advisable because of a particular ...

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Indication: 1. In medicine, a condition which makes a particular treatment or proce...

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Infection: The invasion and multiplication of microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses, an...

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Inflammation: A localized reaction that produces redness, warmth, swelling, and pain as a ...

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Inflammatory bowel disease: A group of chronic intestinal diseases characterized by infla...

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Interleukins: Substances used in biological therapy. Interleukins stimulate the growth and...

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Internal medicine: The medical specialty dedicated to the diagnosis and medical treatment ...

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Intestinal obstruction: Blockage of the intestine by infolding (intussusception), malform...

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Intestine: The long, tubelike organ in the abdomen that completes the process of digestion...

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Kidney: One of a pair of organs located in the right and left side of the abdomen. The kid...

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Lactose: The sugar found in milk. Lactose is a large sugar molecule that is made up of two...

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Large intestine: Comes after the small intestine. Large because it is wider than the smal...

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Liver: The largest solid organ in the body, situated in the upper part of the abdomen on t...

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Lumen: A luminous term referring to the channel within a tube such as a blood vessel or to...

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Malabsorption: Poor intestinal absorption of nutrients. Malabsorption can occur from disea...

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Malnutrition: A term used to refer to any condition in which the body does not receive eno...

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Marker: A piece of DNA that lies on a chromosome so close to a gene that the marker and t...

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Microscope: An optical instrument that augments the power of the eye to see small objects....

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Monoclonal: Derived from a single cell and cells identical to that cell.

Monoclonal antibody: An antibody produced by a single clone of cells. A monoclonal antibod...

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Mouth: 1. The upper opening of the digestive tract, beginning with the lips and con...

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MRI: Magnetic resonance imaging.

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Mucosa: Having to do with a mucous membrane. For example, the oral mucosa.

Mucus: A thick fluid that is produced by the lining of some organs of the body.

Nasogastric: Referring to the passage from the nose to the stomach. Abbreviated NG.

Nasogastric tube: A tube that is passed through the nose and down through the nasopharynx ...

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Nausea: Stomach queasiness, the urge to vomit. Nausea can be brought on by many causes, in...

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Necrosis: The death of living cells or tissues. Necrosis can be due, for example, to ische...

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NG tube: See: Nasogastric tube.

Nose: The external midline projection from the face. The purpose of the nose is to warm, c...

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Nutrition: 1) The science or practice of taking in and utilizing foods. 2) A nourishing ...

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Obstruction: Blockage of a passageway. See, for example: Airway obstruction; Intestinal o...

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Operation: In medicine, a surgical procedure. Many operations are named after persons. The...

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Organ: A relatively independent part of the body that carries out one or more special func...

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Ostomy: An operation to create an opening from an area inside the body to the outside.

Pain: An unpleasant sensation that can range from mild, localized discomfort to agony. Pa...

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Pancreas: A spongy, tube-shaped organ that is about 6 inches long and is located in the ba...

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Parenteral: Not delivered via the intestinal tract. For example, parenteral nutrition is f...

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Parenteral nutrition: Intravenous feeding. Also known as parenteral alimentation.

Pathologist: A physician who identifies diseases and conditions by studying abnormal cells...

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Pharmacy: A location where prescription medications are sold. A pharmacy is constantly sup...

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Prevalence: The proportion of individuals in a population having a disease or characterist...

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Prognosis: The forecast of the probable outcome or course of a disease; the patient's chan...

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Protein: One of the three nutrients used as energy sources (calories) by the body. Protein...

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Pus: A thick, whitish-yellow fluid that results from the accumulation of white blood cells...

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Quality of life: The patient's ability to enjoy normal life activities. Quality of life is...

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Rectum: The last 6 to 8 inches of the large intestine. The rectum stores solid waste until...

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Recurrence: The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission. The reappearance ...

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Regional enteritis: Crohn's disease, a chronic inflammatory disease of the intestine prima...

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Relapse: The return of signs and symptoms of a disease after a remission.

Remission: Disappearance of the signs and symptoms of cancer or other disease. A remission...

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Scan: As a noun, the data or image obtained from the examination of organs or regions of...

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Sclerosing cholangitis: See: Primary sclerosing cholangitis.

Sedimentation rate: A blood test that detects and monitors inflammation in the body. Abbre...

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Short bowel syndrome: A condition due to loss of half or more of their small intestine rem...

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Small bowel: Another name for the small intestine.

Small intestine: The part of the digestive tract that extends from the stomach to the larg...

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Steroid: One of a large group of chemical substances classified by a specific carbon struc...

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Stoma: An opening into the body from the outside that is created by a surgeon.

Stomach: The digestive organ that is located in the upper abdomen, under the ribs. The upp...

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Stool: The solid matter that is discharged in a bowel movement.

Subcutaneous: Under the skin. For example, a subcutaneous injection is an injection in whi...

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Substance: 1. Material with particular features.
2. The material that...

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Surgery: The branch of medicine that employs operations in the treatment of disease or inj...

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Syndrome: A combination of symptoms and signs that together represent a disease process.

Systemic: Affecting the entire body. A systemic disease such as diabetes can affect the wh...

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Terminal ileitis: Crohn's disease, a chronic inflammatory disease of the intestine involvi...

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Tetracycline: A family of broad-spectrum antibiotics effective against a remarkably wide v...

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Therapy: The treatment of disease. Therapy is synonymous with treatment.

Total parenteral nutrition: Intravenous feeding that provides patients with all the fluid ...

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Tumor: An abnormal mass of tissue. Tumors are a classic sign of inflammation, and can be ...

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Tumor necrosis factor: One of multiple proteins capable of inducing necrosis (death) of tu...

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Ulcer: A lesion that is eroding away the skin or mucous membrane. Ulcers can have various ...

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Ulceration: The process or fact of being eroded away, as by an ulcer.

Ulcerative colitis: A bowel disease that is characterized by inflammation with ulcer forma...

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Ultrasound: High-frequency sound waves. Ultra-sound waves can be bounced off tissues by us...

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Upper GI series: A series of x-rays of the esophagus, stomach, and small intestine (upper ...

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Urinary: Having to do with the function or anatomy of the kidneys, ureters, bladder, or ur...

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Urinary tract: The organs of the body that produce, store, and discharge urine. These orga...

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Vagina: The muscular canal that extends from the cervix to the outside of the body. It is ...

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Vessel: A tube in the body that carries fluids. Examples of vessels are blood vessels and ...

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Virus: A microorganism that is smaller than a bacterium that cannot grow or reproduce apar...

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Vitamins: The word "vitamin" was coined in 1911 by the Warsaw-born biochemist Casimir Funk...

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Weight loss: Weight loss is a decrease in body weight resulting from either voluntary (die...

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X-ray: High-energy radiation with waves shorter than those of visible light. X-ray is used...

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Medical Dictionary