Synonyms and Keywords
ambulatory aids, support, cane, crutches
Authors and Editors
Author: John P. Cunha, DO, FACOEP
Editor: Charles P. Davis, MD, PhD
Previous contributing authors and editors:
Author: Michael Hartmann, DO, Staff Physician, Department of Emergency Medicine, Darnall Army Community Hospital.
John G McManus Jr, MD, Research Director, Department of Emergency Medicine, Darnall Army Community Hospital; Assistant Professor, Department of Emergency Medicine, Scott and White Medical Center, Texas A&M University.
Editors: Scott H Plantz, MD, FAAEM, Research Director, Assistant Professor, Department of Emergency Medicine, Mount Sinai School of Medicine; Francisco Talavera, PharmD, PhD, Senior Pharmacy Editor, eMedicine; Steven L Bernstein, MD, Vice-Chair, Academic Affairs, Department of Emergency Medicine, Newark Beth Israel Medical Center; Assistant Professor, Department of Emergency Medicine, Mt Sinai School of Medicine.
Bruno J. Some considerations and guidelines for crutch walking. Clin Podiatry. Aug 1984;1(2):291-4. [Medline].
Decker BC. In: Peat Malcolm, ed. Current Physical Therapy. Mosby; 1988.
Downer AH. Mobilation aids. In: Physical Therapy Procedures. Charles C Thomas; 1994.
Eiff PM, Hatch RL, Calmbach WL, et al. Fracture Management for Primary Care. Philadelphia, Pa: WB Saunders Co; 1998.
"How to Use Crutches." American Orthopaedic Foot & Ankle Society. FootCareMD. <http://www.aofas.org/footcaremd/how-to/foot-injury/Pages/How-to-Use-Crutches.aspx>.
"How to Use Crutches, Canes, and Walkers." American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons. OrthoInfo. July 2007. <http://orthoinfo.aaos.org/topic.cfm?topic=A00181>.
"How to Use Crutches Properly." The Nebraska Medical Center. YouTube.com. Mar. 7, 2011. <http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pYzUQb79_Rw>.
Joyce BM, Kirby RL. Canes, crutches and walkers. Am Fam Physician. Feb 1991;43(2):535-42. [Medline].
Kottke FJ, Lehmann JF. Handbook of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. 4th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: WB Saunders Co; 1990.
Lane PL, LeBlanc R. Crutch walking. Orthop Nurs. Sep-Oct 1990;9(5):31-8. [Medline].Last Editorial Review: 4/20/2012
Nyland, J., T. Bernasek, B. Markee, and C. Dundore. "Comparison of the Easy Strutter Functional Orthosis System and axillary crutches during modified 3-point gait." J Rehabil Res Dev 41.2 Mar. 2004: 195-206. <http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15558373>.
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