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Crutches (cont.)

Synonyms and Keywords

ambulatory aids, support, cane, crutches

Authors and Editors

Author: John P. Cunha, DO, FACOEP

Editor: Charles P. Davis, MD, PhD

Previous contributing authors and editors:

Author: Michael Hartmann, DO, Staff Physician, Department of Emergency Medicine, Darnall Army Community Hospital.

Coauthor(s): John G McManus Jr, MD, Research Director, Department of Emergency Medicine, Darnall Army Community Hospital; Assistant Professor, Department of Emergency Medicine, Scott and White Medical Center, Texas A&M University.

Editors: Scott H Plantz, MD, FAAEM, Research Director, Assistant Professor, Department of Emergency Medicine, Mount Sinai School of Medicine; Francisco Talavera, PharmD, PhD, Senior Pharmacy Editor, eMedicine; Steven L Bernstein, MD, Vice-Chair, Academic Affairs, Department of Emergency Medicine, Newark Beth Israel Medical Center; Assistant Professor, Department of Emergency Medicine, Mt Sinai School of Medicine.


Bruno J. Some considerations and guidelines for crutch walking. Clin Podiatry. Aug 1984;1(2):291-4. [Medline].

Decker BC. In: Peat Malcolm, ed. Current Physical Therapy. Mosby; 1988.

Downer AH. Mobilation aids. In: Physical Therapy Procedures. Charles C Thomas; 1994.

Eiff PM, Hatch RL, Calmbach WL, et al. Fracture Management for Primary Care. Philadelphia, Pa: WB Saunders Co; 1998.

"How to Use Crutches." American Orthopaedic Foot & Ankle Society. FootCareMD. <>.

"How to Use Crutches, Canes, and Walkers." American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons. OrthoInfo. July 2007. <>.

"How to Use Crutches Properly." The Nebraska Medical Center. Mar. 7, 2011. <>.

Joyce BM, Kirby RL. Canes, crutches and walkers. Am Fam Physician. Feb 1991;43(2):535-42. [Medline].

Kottke FJ, Lehmann JF. Handbook of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. 4th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: WB Saunders Co; 1990.

Lane PL, LeBlanc R. Crutch walking. Orthop Nurs. Sep-Oct 1990;9(5):31-8. [Medline].

Nyland, J., T. Bernasek, B. Markee, and C. Dundore. "Comparison of the Easy Strutter Functional Orthosis System and axillary crutches during modified 3-point gait." J Rehabil Res Dev 41.2 Mar. 2004: 195-206. <>.

Last Editorial Review: 4/20/2012

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