Dementia Due to HIV Infection Glossary of Terms

The following are health and medical definitions of terms that appear in the Dementia Due to HIV Infection article.

AIDS dementia complex: A brain disorder in people with severe AIDS, causing loss of thinki...

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Antidepressant: Anything, and especially a drug, used to prevent or treat depression.

Antipsychotic: A medication (or another measure) that is believed to be effective in the t...

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Antiretroviral: An agent or process effective against a retrovirus. For example, a drug to...

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Anxiety: A feeling of apprehension and fear, characterized by physical symptoms such as pa...

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Atrophy: A wasting away or diminution. Muscle atrophy is a decrease in muscle mass, often ...

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Bladder: A hollow organ in the lower abdomen that stores urine. The kidneys filter waste f...

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Bowel: The small and large intestine.

Brain: The portion of the central nervous system that is located within the skull. It func...

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Brain tumor: A benign or malignant growth in the brain. Primary brain tumors initially for...

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Cavities: Holes or structural damage in the two outer layers of a tooth called the enamel...

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Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: The US agency charged with tracking and invest...

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Cerebrospinal fluid: A watery fluid that is continuously produced and absorbed and that fl...

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Cognitive: Having to do with thought, judgment, or knowledge.

Complication: In medicine, an unanticipated problem that arises following, and is a result...

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Computed tomography: An x-ray procedure that uses the help of a computer to produce a deta...

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Constipation: Infrequent and frequently incomplete bowel movements. Constipation is the op...

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CT scan: Computed tomography scan. Detailed images of internal organs are obtained by this...

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Cure: 1. To heal, to make well, to restore to good health. 2. A time withou...

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Dementia: Significant loss of intellectual abilities, such as memory capacity, that is sev...

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Depression: An illness that involves the body, mood, and thoughts and that affects the way...

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Diagnosis: 1 The nature of a disease; the identification of an illness. 2 A ...

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EEG: Electroencephalogram.

Encephalitis: Inflammation of the brain, which may be caused by a bacterium, a virus, or a...

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Encephalopathy: Disease, damage, or malfunction of the brain. In general, encephalopathy i...

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Frontal: In anatomy, pertaining to the forehead. As, for example, the frontal bone, fronta...

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HAART: Stands for highly active antiretroviral therapy....

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HIV: Acronym for the Human Immunodeficiency Virus, the cause of AIDS (acquired immunodefi...

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Hyperactivity: A higher than normal level of activity. An organ can be described as hyper...

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Infection: The invasion and multiplication of microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses, an...

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Inpatient: A patient whose care requires a stay in a hospital. As opposed to an outpatient...

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Lab test: A test that is done in the laboratory where the appropriate equipment, supplies,...

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Libido: 1. Sexual drive. 2. In psychoanalysis, the psychic energy from all ...

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Lumbar: Referring to the five lumbar vertebrae, the disks below them, and the correspondin...

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Lumbar puncture: A procedure in which cerebrospinal fluid is removed from the spinal canal...

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Malnutrition: A term used to refer to any condition in which the body does not receive eno...

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Mania: An abnormally elevated mood state characterized by such symptoms as inappropriate...

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Memory: 1. The ability to recover information about past events or knowledge. ...

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Metabolic: Relating to metabolism, the whole range of biochemical processes that occur wit...

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Metabolism: The whole range of biochemical processes that occur within a living organism. ...

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Motor: Something that produces or refers to motion. For example, a motor neuron is a nerve...

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MRI: Magnetic resonance imaging.

Muscle: Muscle is the tissue of the body which primarily functions as a source of power. T...

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Nerve: A bundle of fibers that uses electrical and chemical signals to transmit sensory an...

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Neurologist: A physician who specializes in the diagnosis and treatment of disorders of th...

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Nursing: 1) Profession concerned with the provision of services essential to the maintena...

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Nursing home: A residential facility for people with chronic illness or disability, partic...

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Onset: In medicine, the first appearance of the signs or symptoms of an illness as, for ex...

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Parenchymal: Pertaining to the parenchyma of an organ. See: Parenchyma.

Proteins: Large molecules composed of one or more chains of amino acids in a specific orde...

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Psychiatrist: A physician who specializes in the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of m...

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Psychosis: In the general sense, a mental illness that markedly interferes with a person'...

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Rule out: Term used in medicine, meaning to eliminate or exclude something from considera...

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Scan: As a noun, the data or image obtained from the examination of organs or regions of...

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Sleep: The body's rest cycle.

SPECT: An acronym that stands for Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography, a nuclear me...

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Spinal cord: The major column of nerve tissue that is connected to the brain and lies with...

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Spinal tap: Also known as a lumbar puncture or "LP", a spinal tap is a procedure whereby ...

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Stroke: The sudden death of brain cells due to lack of oxygen, caused by blockage of blood...

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Therapy: The treatment of disease. Therapy is synonymous with treatment.

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Tomography: The process for generating a tomogram, a two-dimensional image of a slice or s...

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Tumor: An abnormal mass of tissue. Tumors are a classic sign of inflammation, and can be ...

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Ventricles: 1, The right ventricle and the left ventricle, the lower two chambers o...

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Ventricular: Pertaining to the ventricles, the lower chambers of the heart, as in ventricu...

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Viral: Of or pertaining to a virus. For example, if a person has a viral rash, the rash wa...

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Virus: A microorganism that is smaller than a bacterium that cannot grow or reproduce apar...

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White matter: The part of the brain that contains myelinated nerve fibers. The white matte...

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