Robert Ferry Jr., MD, is a U.S. board-certified Pediatric Endocrinologist. After taking his baccalaureate degree from Yale College, receiving his doctoral degree and residency training in pediatrics at University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio (UTHSCSA), he completed fellowship training in pediatric endocrinology at The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia.
Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD, is a U.S. board-certified Anatomic Pathologist with subspecialty training in the fields of Experimental and Molecular Pathology. Dr. Stöppler's educational background includes a BA with Highest Distinction from the University of Virginia and an MD from the University of North Carolina. She completed residency training in Anatomic Pathology at Georgetown University followed by subspecialty fellowship training in molecular diagnostics and experimental pathology.
If a person has diabetes and experiences any of the following, call a health
Experiencing diabetes symptoms: this may mean
that the person's blood sugar level is not being controlled despite treatment
Blood sugar levels, when tested, are
consistently high (more than 200 mg/dL): Persistently high blood sugar levels
are the root cause of all of the complications of diabetes.
The patient's blood sugar level is often low (less than 70
mg/dL): this may mean that the diabetes management strategy is too aggressive. It also
may be a sign of infection or other stress on the body's organs such as kidney
failure, liver failure, adrenal gland failure, or the concomitant use of
An injury to the foot or leg, no matter how
minor: even the tiniest cut or blister can become very serious in a person
with diabetes. Early diagnosis and treatment of problems with the feet and
lower extremities, along with regular diabetic foot care, are critical in
preserving the function of the legs and preventing amputation.
Low-grade fever (less than 101.5 F or 38.6 C):
Fever is a sign of infection.
In patients with diabetes, many common infections can potentially be more dangerous for
them than for other people. Note any symptoms, such as painful urination, redness or swelling of the skin,
pain, or cough, that may indicate where the infection is located.
Nausea or vomiting, but can keep liquids
down: The health care professional may adjust medications while the patient is sick,
and will probably recommend an urgent office visit or a visit to the emergency
department. Persistent nausea and vomiting can be a sign of diabetic ketoacidosis, a potentially life-threatening condition, as well as several
other serious illnesses.
Small sore(s) (ulcer) on the foot or leg: Any non-healing sore or ulcer on the feet or legs of someone with diabetes needs to be seen by a medical professional
right away. A sore less than 1 inch across, not draining pus, and not exposing deep tissue or bone, can safely be evaluated
by a health care professional, as long as the patient does not have fever and
their blood sugar levels are under control.
When you call a health care professional, tell them that you or someone you
know has diabetes and are concerned.
The patient will probably be referred to a nurse who will ask
questions and make a recommendation about what to do.
Be prepared for this conversation. Have a list of medications, medical problems, allergies to medicines, and
a blood sugar
diary handy by the phone.
The nurse may need any or all of this information to decide both the urgency of
the patient's condition and how best to recommend treatment for the problem.
Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a group of disorders characterized by hyperglycemia and associated with microvascular (ie, retinal, renal, possibly neuropathic), macrovascular (ie, coronary, peripheral vascular), and neuropathic (ie, autonomic, peripheral) complications.