Diabetes (Mellitus, Type 1 and Type 2) (cont.)
What Are Complications of Diabetes?
Both type 1 and type 2 diabetes lead to high blood sugar levels, called hyperglycemia. Over a long period of time, hyperglycemia damages the retina of the eye, blood vessels of the kidneys and other organs, and the nerves.
- Damage to the retina from diabetes (diabetic retinopathy) is the leading cause of blindness.
- Damage to the kidneys from diabetes (diabetic nephropathy) is the leading cause of kidney failure.
- Damage to the nerves from diabetes (diabetic neuropathy) is a leading cause of foot wounds and ulcers, which frequently lead to foot and leg amputations.
- Damage to the nerves in the autonomic nervous system can lead to paralysis of the stomach (gastroparesis), chronic diarrhea, and an inability to control heart rate and blood pressure during postural changes.
- Diabetes accelerates atherosclerosis, (the formation of fatty plaques inside the arteries), which can lead to blockages or a clot (thrombus). Such changes can then lead to heart attack, stroke, and decreased circulation in the arms and legs (peripheral vascular disease).
- Diabetes predisposes people to elevated blood pressure, high levels of cholesterol and triglycerides. Both independently and together with hyperglycemia, these conditions increase the risk of heart disease, kidney disease, and other blood vessel complications.
Diabetes can contribute to a number of acute (coming on suddenly rather than developing slowly over time) medical problems.
- Many infections are associated with diabetes. Infections are frequently more dangerous in someone with diabetes because the body's normal ability to fight infections is impaired. To compound the problem, infections may worsen glucose control, which further delays recovery from infection.
- Hypoglycemia or low blood sugar occurs intermittently in most people with diabetes. It can result from taking too much diabetes medication or insulin (sometimes called an insulin reaction), missing a meal, exercising more than usual, drinking too much alcohol, or taking certain medications for other conditions. It is very important to recognize hypoglycemia and be prepared to treat it at all times. Headache, feeling dizzy, poor concentration, tremor of the hands, and sweating are common symptoms of hypoglycemia. A person can faint or have a seizure if his or her blood sugar level becomes too low.
- Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a serious condition in which uncontrolled hyperglycemia (usually due to complete lack of insulin or a relative deficiency of insulin) over time creates a buildup of ketones (acidic waste products) in the blood. High levels of ketones can be very harmful. This typically happens to people with type 1 diabetes who do not have good blood glucose control. Diabetic ketoacidosis can be precipitated by infection, stress, trauma, missing medications like insulin, or medical emergencies such as a stroke and heart attack.
- Hyperosmolar hyperglycemic nonketotic syndrome is a serious condition in which the blood sugar level gets very high. The body tries to get rid of the excess blood sugar by eliminating it in the urine. This increases the amount of urine significantly, and often leads to dehydration so severe that it can cause seizures, coma, and even death. This syndrome typically occurs in people with type 2 diabetes who are not controlling their blood sugar levels, who have become dehydrated, or who have stress, injury, stroke, or are taking certain medications, like steroids.
Diagnosing Complications of Diabetes
A person with diabetes should be checked regularly for early signs of diabetic complications. A health-care professional can order some of these tests. For other tests, the patient should be referred to a specialist.
- The patient should have their eyes checked at least once a year by an eye specialist (ophthalmologist) to screen for diabetic retinopathy, a leading cause of blindness.
- The patient's urine should be checked for protein (microalbumin) on a regular basis, at least one to two times per year. Protein in the urine is an early sign of diabetic nephropathy, a leading cause of kidney failure.
- Sensation in the legs should be checked regularly using a tuning fork or a monofilament device. Diabetic neuropathy is a leading cause of lower extremity ulcers in individuals with diabetes, which frequently lead to amputation of the feet or legs.
- The health-care professional should check the feet and lower legs of the patient at every visit for cuts, scrapes, blisters, or other lesions that could become infected. Adults with diabetes should check the soles of their feet and their legs daily with a hand-held mirror, either by themselves or with the assistance of a relative or caretaker.
- The patient should be screened regularly for conditions that may contribute to heart disease, such as high blood pressure and high cholesterol.
Medically Reviewed by a Doctor on 3/3/2016
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