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Diabetes (Mellitus, Type 1 and Type 2) (cont.)

Diabetes Medications

Many different types of medications are available to help lower blood sugar levels in people with type 2 diabetes. Each type works in a different way. It is very common to combine two or more types to get the best effect with fewest side effects.

  • Sulfonylureas: These drugs stimulate the pancreas to make more insulin.
  • Biguanides: These agents decrease the amount of glucose produced by the liver.
  • Alpha-glucosidase inhibitors: These agents slow absorption of the starches a person eats. This slows down glucose production.
  • Thiazolidinediones: These agents increase sensitivity to insulin.
  • Meglitinides: These agents stimulate the pancreas to make more insulin.
  • D-phenylalanine derivatives: These agents stimulate the pancreas to produce more insulin more quickly.
  • Sodium-glucose co-transporter 1 (SGLT2) inhibitors: Approved in 2013, cenagliflozin (Invokana) the first drug of this class blocks reabsorption of glucose by the kidney, leading to increased glucosse excretion and reduction of blood sugar levels.
  • Amylin synthetic derivatives: Amylin is a naturally occurring hormone secreted by the pancreas along with insulin. An amylin derivative, such as pramlintide (Symlin), is indicated when blood sugar control is not achieved despite optimal insulin therapy. Pramlintide is administered as a subcutaneous injection along with insulin and helps achieve lower blood sugar levels after meals, helps reduce fluctuation of blood sugar levels throughout the day, and improves hemoglobin A1C levels.
  • Incretin mimetics: Incretin mimetics promote insulin secretion by the pancreas and mimics other blood sugar level lowering actions that naturally occur in the body. Exenatide (Byetta) was the first incretin mimetic agent approved in the United States. It is indicated for diabetes mellitus type 2 in addition to metformin (Glucophage) or a sulfonylurea when these agents have not attained blood sugar level control alone.
  • Insulins: Synthetic human insulin is now the only type of insulin available in the United States; it is less likely to cause allergic reactions than animal-derived varieties of insulin used in the past. The type of insulin chosen to customize treatment for an individual is based on the goal of providing optimal blood sugar control. Different types of insulin are available and categorized according to their times of action onset and duration. Commercially prepared mixtures of insulin may also be used to provide constant (basal) control and immediate control.
    • Examples of rapid-acting insulins
    • Examples of intermediate-acting insulins
      • Isophane insulin, neutral protamine Hagedorn (NPH) (Humulin N, Novolin N)
      • Insulin zinc (Lente)
    • Examples of long-acting insulins
Medically Reviewed by a Doctor on 4/3/2014

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