Diabetic Eye Disease Glossary of Terms

The following are health and medical definitions of terms that appear in the Diabetic Eye Disease article.

20/20: See: Twenty-twenty.

Abnormal: Outside the expected norm, or uncharacteristic of a particular patient.

Aerobic: Oxygen-requiring. Aerobic bacteria need oxygen to grow. Aerobic exercise requires...

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Aerobic exercise: Brisk exercise that promotes the circulation of oxygen through the blood...

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Amputation: Removal of part or all of a body part that is enclosed by skin. Amputation can...

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Angiogram: An X-ray image of blood vessels. The vessels can be seen because a contrast dye...

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Aqueous humor: In medicine, humor refers to a fluid (or semifluid) substance. Thus, the aq...

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Argon laser: A laser with ionized argon as the active medium. Argon lasers are used for ph...

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Blindness: Loss of useful sight. Blindness can be temporary or permanent. Damage to any p...

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Blood pressure: The blood pressure is the pressure of the blood within the arteries. It is...

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Blood sugar: Blood glucose. See also: High blood sugar; Low blood sugar.

Brain: The portion of the central nervous system that is located within the skull. It func...

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Carbohydrates: Mainly sugars and starches, together constituting one of the three principa...

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Cataract: A clouding or loss of transparency of the lens in the eye as a result of tissu...

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Cataract surgery: Removal of the clouded (cataractous) lens in its entirety via surgery an...

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Cholesterol: The most common type of steroid in the body. Cholesterol has a reputation for...

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Circulation: In medicine, the movement of fluid through the body in a regular or circuitou...

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Circulatory: Having to do with circulation, the movement of fluid in a regular or circuito...

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Cure: 1. To heal, to make well, to restore to good health. 2. A time withou...

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Diabetes: Usually refers to diabetes mellitus or, less often, to diabetes insipidus. Diabe...

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Diabetes mellitus: More commonly referred to as "diabetes" -- a chronic disease associated...

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Diabetic eye disease: 1. A disease of the small blood vessels of the retina of the ...

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Diabetic macular edema: Swelling of the retina in diabetes mellitus due to leaking of flui...

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Diabetic retinopathy: Disease of the retina caused by diabetes that involves damage to the...

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Diagnosis: 1 The nature of a disease; the identification of an illness. 2 A ...

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Dilation: The process of enlargement, stretching, or expansion. The word "dilatation" mean...

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Edema: The swelling of soft tissues as a result of excess fluid accumulation. Edema is oft...

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Epinephrine: Also known as adrenaline. A substance produced by the medulla inside of the a...

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Fats: Plural of the word "fat". See the definition of fat.

Focal: Pertaining to a focus which in medicine may refer to:
1. The point at ...

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Glaucoma: A common eye condition in which the fluid pressure inside the eye rises to a lev...

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Glycosylated hemoglobin: Hemoglobin to which glucose is bound. Glycosylated hemoglobin is...

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Heart: The muscle that pumps blood received from veins into arteries throughout the body. ...

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Heart disease: Any disorder that affects the heart. Sometimes the term "heart disease" is ...

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Hemoglobin: The oxygen-carrying pigment and predominant protein in the red blood cells. He...

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Hemoglobin A1c: A minor component of hemoglobin to which glucose is bound. Abbreviated HbA...

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Hemorrhage: Bleeding or the abnormal flow of blood.

High blood pressure: A repeatedly elevated blood pressure exceeding 140 over 90 mmHg. Chro...

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High blood sugar: An elevated level of the sugar glucose in the blood. Also called hypergl...

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Humor: In medicine, a fluid or semifluid substance. For example, the aqueous humor is the ...

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Hyperglycemia: A high blood sugar. An elevated level specifically of the sugar glucose in...

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Indicate: In medicine, to make a treatment or procedure advisable because of a particular ...

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Infection: The invasion and multiplication of microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses, an...

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Intraocular: In the eye. For example, intraocular pressure is the pressure within the eye....

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Intraocular pressure: The pressure created by the continual renewal of fluids within the ...

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Iris: The circular, colored curtain of the eye. The opening of the iris forms the pupil. T...

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Kidney: One of a pair of organs located in the right and left side of the abdomen. The kid...

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Laser: A powerful beam of light that is used in some types of surgery to cut or destroy ti...

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Leg: In popular usage, the part of the body from the top of the thigh down to the foot, an...

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Lens: The transparent structure inside the eye that focuses light rays onto the retina.

Lipid: Another word for "fat." (Please see the various meanings of fat.) A lipid is chemic...

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Lower leg: The lower leg is the bottom segment of the leg: the part below the knee.

Macula: A macula is a small spot. A macula on the skin is a small flat spot while the macu...

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Macular: Pertaining to the macula.

Metabolism: The whole range of biochemical processes that occur within a living organism. ...

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Microscope: An optical instrument that augments the power of the eye to see small objects....

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Nerve: A bundle of fibers that uses electrical and chemical signals to transmit sensory an...

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Operating room: A facility that is equipped for performing surgery. Abbreviated OR.

Ophthalmologist: A physician who practices ophthalmology.

Optic: Having to do with vision.

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Optic nerve: The optic nerve connects the eye to the brain. The optic nerve carries the...

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Ounce: A measure of weight equal to 1/16th of a pound or, metrically, 28.35 gra...

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Oxygen: The odorless gas that is present in the air and necessary to maintain life. Oxygen...

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Peripheral: Situated away from the center, as opposed to centrally located.

Photocoagulation: The coagulation (clotting) of tissue using a laser which produces light ...

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Poor circulation: An inadequacy of blood flow. Inadequate blood flow to a particular area ...

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Pound: A measure of weight that is equal to 16 ounces or, metrically, 453.6 grams. Abbrevi...

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Prognosis: The forecast of the probable outcome or course of a disease; the patient's chan...

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Progressive: Increasing in scope or severity, advancing, or going forward. For example, a ...

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Proliferative: Growing and increasing in number rapidly.

Prostaglandin: One of a number of hormone-like substances that participate in a wide range...

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Protein: One of the three nutrients used as energy sources (calories) by the body. Protein...

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Red blood cells: The blood cells that carry oxygen. Red cells contain hemoglobin and it is...

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Refraction: In opthalmology, the bending of light that takes place within the human eye. R...

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Retina: The retina is the nerve layer that lines the back of the eye, senses light, and cr...

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Retinal: Pertaining to the retina, the extraordinary layer of neurons (nerve cells) that ...

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Retinal detachment: A separation of the retina from its connection at the back of the eye....

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Retinopathy: Any disease of the retina, the light-sensitive membrane at the back of the ey...

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Rule out: Term used in medicine, meaning to eliminate or exclude something from considera...

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Stroke: The sudden death of brain cells due to lack of oxygen, caused by blockage of blood...

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Surgery: The branch of medicine that employs operations in the treatment of disease or inj...

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Visual acuity: The clarity or clearness of vision, a measure of how well a person sees.

Visual field: The entire area that can be seen when the eye is directed forward, including...

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Vitrectomy: Removal of the gel (called the vitreous) from within the eyeball. This may be ...

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Vitreous: A clear, jelly-like substance that fills the middle of the eye. Also called the ...

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