Robert Ferry Jr., MD, is a U.S. board-certified Pediatric Endocrinologist. After taking his baccalaureate degree from Yale College, receiving his doctoral degree and residency training in pediatrics at University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio (UTHSCSA), he completed fellowship training in pediatric endocrinology at The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia.
Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD, is a U.S. board-certified Anatomic Pathologist with subspecialty training in the fields of Experimental and Molecular Pathology. Dr. Stöppler's educational background includes a BA with Highest Distinction from the University of Virginia and an MD from the University of North Carolina. She completed residency training in Anatomic Pathology at Georgetown University followed by subspecialty fellowship training in molecular diagnostics and experimental pathology.
Age: The older the patient, the more likely they are to have serious problems with
the feet and legs. In addition to diabetes, circulatory problems and nerve damage are more common in the elderly
person with diabetes. The elderly may also be more prone to sustaining minor trauma to the feet from difficulties with walking and stumbling over obstacles they cannot see.
Duration of diabetes: The longer the patient has had diabetes, the more likely
they have developed one or more major risk factors for diabetic lower extremity problems.
Seriousness of infection: Infections that involve gangrene almost universally go on to amputation and also carry a high risk of death. Ulcers larger than about 1 inch across have a much higher risk of progressing on to
limb amputation, even with proper treatment. Infections involving deep tissues and bone carry a much higher risk of amputation.
Quality of circulation: If blood flow is poor in the patient's legs as a result of damage to the blood vessels from smoking or diabetes or both, it is much more difficult to heal wounds. The likelihood of more serious infection and amputation is greater.
Compliance with the treatment plan: How well the patient follows and participates in the treatment plan developed with doctors and nurses is crucial to the best recovery possible. Ask questions
if any aspects of the care or treatment plan are unclear. Let the doctor know if something in the plan doesn't seem to be working.
Wound care centers: A wound care center is an excellent resource if available. It brings together many specialists and approaches to aid in the treatment of the diabetic foot problem. These centers will often be able to offer the most up-to-date therapies and even may have experimental protocols available for people who have not responded to traditional therapy.
Individual physician and nurse skills: Ask about your doctor or nurse's expertise in dealing with diabetic lower extremity problems. Knowledge about and experience with these problems may lead to earlier diagnosis and more appropriate therapy.