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Disorders That Disrupt Sleep (Parasomnias) (cont.)

Sleep Disorder Causes

Few, if any, specific causes exist for parasomnias, but each type of parasomnia has a number of predisposing factors. They are as follows:  

Nightmare disorder

  • Personality disorders

  • Relationship difficulties

  • Other stressors

  • Drugs, for example, levodopa, beta-adrenergic drugs, and withdrawal of REM-suppressing medications 

Sleep terror disorder

  • Fever

  • Sleep deprivation (lack of sleep)

  • CNS depressant medications

Sleepwalking disorder

REM sleep behavior disorder

Restless legs syndrome and periodic limb movement disorder

  • Mostly no known cause

  • Iron-deficiency anemia (amount of hemoglobin is less than normal)

  • Pregnancy, menstruation, and menopause

  • Chronic renal failure

  • Osteoarthritis of the hips and knees

  • Drugs, for example, caffeine, tricyclic antidepressants, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, and dopamine receptor-blocking drugs

  • Neurological disorders

  • Peripheral neuropathies (disorder affecting any segment of the nervous system)

  • Various causes of myelitis

  • Postpolio syndrome

  • Diseases of the spinal cord

  • Disorders of the lumbar/sacral region

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Parasomnias »

Parasomnias are disorders characterized by undesirable motor, verbal, or experiential phenomenon occurring in association with sleep, specific stages of sleep, or sleep-awake transition phases.

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