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Doctors: Specialties and Training (cont.)

Fellowship Training

After completing a three- to five-year residency, about 30% of the fully trained physicians elect to pursue additional training to become subspecialists.

Subspecialty training may last an additional one to four years. Usually the focus of subspecialty training is fairly narrow and allows the physician to obtain knowledge and skills needed to perform additional procedures or focus on treating patients with a particular type of problem. Most subspecialties have additional board exams at the end of their training qualifying the physician to be a board-certified subspecialist.

The most common specialties and subspecialties, as well as the years of training required, are listed here. In some cases, more than one specialty training may qualify a physician for fellowship training.

  • Dermatology - four years
    • Dermatopathology - one to two years
    • Pediatric dermatology
  • Emergency medicine - three to four years
    • Pediatric emergency medicine - two years
    • Sports medicine - one to two years
    • Toxicology - two years
  • Family practice - three years
  • Neurology - four years
    • Electromyography (EMG) - one to two years
    • Neuromuscular diseases - one to two years
    • Electroencephalography (EEG) - one to two years
    • Epilepsy - one to two years
    • Behavioral neurology/dementia - one to two years
    • Cerebrovascular diseases/stroke - one to two years
    • Movement disorders - one to two years
    • Neuroimmunology - one to two years
    • Neuro-oncology - one to two years
    • Pain - one to two years
    • Headache - one to two years
    • Neuro-ophthalmology - one year
    • Critical care neurology - one year
    • Neuroimaging - one year
    • Sleep - one year
  • Ophthalmology - four years
  • Plastic surgery - five to six years
    • Hand surgery - two years
  • Internal medicine - three years
    • Allergy & immunology - two years
    • Cardiology - three years
    • Critical care - two to three years
    • Endocrinology - two years
    • Gastroenterology - three years
    • Geriatrics -two years
    • Hematology and oncology - two to three years
    • Infectious diseases - two years
    • Nephrology - two years
    • Pulmonology - two to three years
    • Rheumatology - two years
  • Obstetrics/gynecology - four years
  • General surgery - five to six years
    • Critical care - two years
    • Pediatric surgery - two years
    • Thoracic surgery - two to three years
    • Transplant surgery - two to three years
    • Trauma - two years
    • Vascular surgery - two years
    • Colon and rectal surgery - two years
  • Urology - five years
    • Pediatric urology - one to two years
  • Psychiatry - four years
    • Child psychiatry - three years
    • Forensic psychiatry - two to three years
  • Neurosurgery - six years
    • Pediatric neurosurgery - one to two years
  • Physical medicine - three years
    • Pediatric physical medicine - two years
  • Radiology - four years
    • CT - one year
    • MRI - one to two years
    • Ultrasound - one year
    • Interventional - one to two years
    • Neuroradiology - one to two years
    • Breast - one year
    • Chest - one year
    • Musculoskeletal - one year
    • Pediatric - one to two years
    • Nuclear medicine - one to two years
  • Orthopedic surgery - five years
    • Hand - two years
    • Spine - two years
    • Hip - two years
    • Foot and ankle - two years
  • Anesthesiology - four years
    • Critical care - two years
    • Pediatric anesthesiology - two years
  • Pathology - five years
    • Forensics pathology - two years
  • Aerospace medicine - two years
  • Pediatrics - three years
    • Allergy and immunology - two years
    • Behavioral and developmental - two years
    • Cardiology - two years
    • Critical care - two years
    • Endocrinology - two years
    • Gastroenterology - two years
    • Genetics - two years
    • Hematology and oncology - two years
    • Infectious diseases - two years
    • Neonatology - two years
    • Nephrology - two years
    • Pulmonology - two years
    • Rheumatology - two years



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