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Down Syndrome (cont.)

Down Syndrome and Cognitive Impairment

Down syndrome is the leading cause for impaired cognition. Cognitive development is usually delayed and learning difficulties persist throughout life. Scientists are trying to determine what causes this dysfunction. The average brain volume of a person with Down syndrome is small and certain brain structures such as the hippocampus and the cerebellum do not function properly. The hippocampus in particular, is important for learning and memory. Through human studies and mouse models of Down syndrome, scientists are trying to find out which genes on the extra chromosome 21 affect cognition in Down syndrome.

Medically Reviewed by a Doctor on 8/18/2014
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Down Syndrome »

In 1866, Down described clinical characteristics of the syndrome that now bears his name.

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