IN THIS ARTICLE
Conditions of Sodium Imbalance
Hypernatremia (hyper= too much + natr= sodium + emia=in the blood) is usually associated with dehydration, and instead of having too much sodium, there is too little water. This water loss can occur from illnesses with vomiting or diarrhea, excessive sweating from exercise or fever, or from drinking fluid that has too high concentrations of salt.
Hyponatremia (hypo=too little) is caused by water intoxication (drinking so much water that it dilutes the sodium in the blood and overwhelms the kidney's compensation mechanism) or by a syndrome of inappropriate anti-diuretic hormone secretion (SIADH). SIADH can be associated with illnesses like pneumonia, brain diseases, cancer, thyroid problems, and some medications.
Medically Reviewed by a Doctor on 8/4/2015
Must Read Articles Related to Electrolytes
Patient Comments & Reviews
The eMedicineHealth doctors ask about Electrolytes:
Sodium Imbalance - Patient Experience
Have you experienced sodium imbalance? Please describe your experience.
Potassium Imbalance - Patient Experience
Have you experienced potassium imbalance? Please describe your experience.
Calcium Imbalance - Patient Experience
Have you experienced calcium imbalance? Please describe your experience.
Magnesium Imbalance - Patient Experience
Have you experienced magnesium imbalance? Please describe your experience.
Electrolytes - Experience
What conditions have you experienced from having too many or too few electrolytes?
Nutrition and Healthy Eating Resources
Health Solutions From Our Sponsors
Read What Your Physician is Reading on Medscape
This article describes important principles and specific methods of fluid, electrolyte, and nutrition (FEN) management in newborns, with a special focus on patients with complex fluid and electrolyte requirements, including premature, very low birth weight (VLBW), and extremely low birth weight (ELBW) neonates, as well as patients who have undergone abdominal surgery and those who have sepsis.