Encephalitis Glossary of Terms

The following are health and medical definitions of terms that appear in the Encephalitis article.

Acute: Of abrupt onset, in reference to a disease. Acute often also connotes an illness th...

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Acyclovir: (Brand name: Zovirax) One of a group of antiviral drugs that acts against the...

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AIDS dementia complex: A brain disorder in people with severe AIDS, causing loss of thinki...

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Allergic reaction: The hypersensitive response of the immune system of an allergic indiv...

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Analysis: In psychology, a term for conversation-based therapeutic processes used to gain ...

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Antiviral: An agent that kills a virus or that suppresses its ability to replicate and, he...

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Arbovirus: A class of viruses transmitted to humans by arthropods such as mosquitoes and ...

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Autism: A spectrum of neuropsychiatric disorders characterized by deficits in social inter...

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Autoantibody: An antibody directed against the patient's own body tissue.

Autoimmune: Pertaining to autoimmunity, a misdirected immune response that occurs when the...

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Autoimmune disease: An illness that occurs when the body tissues are attacked by its own i...

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Bacteria: Single-celled microorganisms that can exist either as independent (free-living) ...

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Bacterial: Of or pertaining to bacteria, as in a bacterial lung infection.

Biopsy: The removal of a sample of tissue for examination under a microscope to check for ...

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Blood count: The calculated number of white or red blood cells (WBCs or RBCs) in a cubic m...

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Bovine: Having to do with cows and cattle, as in bovine spongiform encephalopathy (mad cow...

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Brain: The portion of the central nervous system that is located within the skull. It func...

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Brain biopsy: Biopsy of the brain. Removal of a small piece of tissue from the brain for d...

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Brain swelling: See: Cerebral edema.

C-section: Short for Cesarean section.

Cancer: An abnormal growth of cells which tend to proliferate in an uncontrolled way and, ...

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CBC: A commonly used abbreviation in medicine that stands for complete blood count, a set...

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CDC: The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the US agency charged with tracking a...

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Cell: The basic structural and functional unit of any living thing. Each cell is a small c...

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Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: The US agency charged with tracking and invest...

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Chickenpox: A highly infectious viral disease also known medically as varicella -- in many...

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Chronic: In medicine, lasting a long time. A chronic condition is one that lasts 3 months ...

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Chronic fatigue syndrome: A debilitating and complex disorder characterized by profound fa...

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Cognitive: Having to do with thought, judgment, or knowledge.

Complete blood count: A set values of the cellular (formed elements) of blood. These meas...

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Contagious: capable of being transmitted from one human to another human via direct or ind...

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CT scan: Computerized tomography scan. Pictures of structures within the body created by a...

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Dementia: Significant loss of intellectual abilities, such as memory capacity, that is sev...

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Developmental delay: A condition in which a child is behind schedule in reaching milestone...

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Diagnosis: 1 The nature of a disease; the identification of an illness. 2 A ...

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Donor: The giver of a tissue or an organ, such as a blood donor or kidney donor.

Eastern equine encephalitis: Abbreviated EEE. A mosquito-born viral disease. The EEE virus...

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EEG: Electroencephalogram.

Emergency department: The department of a hospital responsible for the provision of medica...

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Encephalitis: Inflammation of the brain, which may be caused by a bacterium, a virus, or a...

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Encephalomyelitis: Inflammation of both the brain and the spinal cord. Encephalomyelitis c...

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Epidemic: The occurrence of more cases of a disease than would be expected in a community...

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Fatigue: A condition characterized by a lessened capacity for work and reduced efficiency ...

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Fetus: An unborn offspring, from the embryo stage (the end of the eighth week after concep...

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Fever: Although a fever technically is any body temperature above the normal of 98.6 degr...

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Flu: Short for influenza. The flu is caused by viruses that infect the respiratory tract w...

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Fungi: Plural of fungus.

Gait: A manner of walking. Observation of gait can provide early diagnostic clues for a nu...

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Genetic: Having to do with genes and genetic
information.

Genital: Pertaining to the external and/or internal organs of reproduction.

Germ: 1. A cell or group of cells (called a primordium) capable of developing into ...

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Germ cell: Either the egg or the sperm cell; a reproductive cell. Each mature germ cell is...

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Glutamate: A form of glutamic acid. See: Glutamic acid.

Headache: A pain in the head with the pain being above the eyes or the ears, behind the he...

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Herpes: A family of viruses. Herpes also refers to infection with one of the human herpesv...

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HIV: Acronym for the Human Immunodeficiency Virus, the cause of AIDS (acquired immunodefi...

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Hives: A raised, itchy area of skin that may be a sign of an allergic reaction. It can be ...

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Immune: Protected against infection, usually by the presence of antibodies.

Immune system: A complex system that is responsible for distinguishing a person from every...

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Immunity: The condition of being immune. Immunity can be innate'for example, humans are in...

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Immunology: The study of all aspects of the immune system, including its structure and fun...

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Immunotherapy: Treatment to stimulate or restore the ability of the immune (defense) syst...

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Infant: A young baby, from birth to 12 months of age.

Infection: The invasion and multiplication of microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses, an...

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Inflammation: A localized reaction that produces redness, warmth, swelling, and pain as a ...

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Isolate: A group in which mating is always between members of the group. For example, the ...

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Japanese encephalitis: A mosquito-borne flavivirus infection that is the leading cause of ...

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Kidney: One of a pair of organs located in the right and left side of the abdomen. The kid...

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Lips: Aside from the lips of the mouth, there are two pairs of lips at the entrance to the...

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Liver: The largest solid organ in the body, situated in the upper part of the abdomen on t...

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Lumbar: Referring to the five lumbar vertebrae, the disks below them, and the correspondin...

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Lumbar puncture: A procedure in which cerebrospinal fluid is removed from the spinal canal...

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Lyme disease: An inflammatory disease that is caused by the bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi...

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Measles: An acute and highly contagious viral disease characterized by fever, runny nose,...

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Memory: 1. The ability to recover information about past events or knowledge. ...

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Meningitis: Inflammation of the meninges, the three membranes that envelop the brain and t...

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Mental retardation: The condition of having an IQ measured as below 70 to 75 and significa...

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Mortality: A fatal outcome or, in one word, death. The word "mortality" is derived from "m...

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Mortality rate: A death rate. There are a number of different types of mortality rates as,...

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Motor: Something that produces or refers to motion. For example, a motor neuron is a nerve...

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Mouth: 1. The upper opening of the digestive tract, beginning with the lips and con...

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MRI: Magnetic resonance imaging.

Mumps: An acute (sudden, shortlived) viral illness that usually presents with inflammation...

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Muscle: Muscle is the tissue of the body which primarily functions as a source of power. T...

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Mycoplasma: A large group of bacteria, with more than 100 types identified. Mycoplasma are...

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Natural immunity: Immunity that is naturally existing, Natural immunity does not require p...

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Neck: The part of the body joining the head to the shoulders. Also, any narrow or constric...

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Nerve: A bundle of fibers that uses electrical and chemical signals to transmit sensory an...

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Onset: In medicine, the first appearance of the signs or symptoms of an illness as, for ex...

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Ovarian: Of or pertaining to the ovary.

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Paralysis: Loss of voluntary movement (motor function). Paralysis that affects only one mu...

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Parasite: A plant or an animal organism that lives in or on another and takes its nourishm...

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Pediatric: Pertaining to children.

Pregnancy: The state of carrying a developing embryo or fetus within the female body. Thi...

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Pregnant: The state of carrying a developing fetus within the body.

Prion: A small proteinaceous infectious disease-causing agent that is believed to be the s...

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Prognosis: The forecast of the probable outcome or course of a disease; the patient's chan...

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Rabies: A potentially fatal viral infection that attacks the central nervous system. Rabie...

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Receptor: 1. In cell biology, a structure on the surface of a cell (or inside a cel...

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Relapse: The return of signs and symptoms of a disease after a remission.

Scan: As a noun, the data or image obtained from the examination of organs or regions of...

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Seizure: Uncontrolled electrical activity in the brain, which may produce a physical conv...

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Sensitivity: 1. In psychology, the quality of being sensitive. As, for example, sen...

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Sore: 1. (adjective) A popular term for painful, such as a sore throat. 2. (...

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Sore throat: Pain in the throat. Sore throat may be caused by many different causes, inclu...

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Spinal cord: The major column of nerve tissue that is connected to the brain and lies with...

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Spinal tap: Also known as a lumbar puncture or "LP", a spinal tap is a procedure whereby ...

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Spongiform: Resembling a sponge in being soft and full of cavities, as in as in transmissi...

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Strain: 1. An injury to a tendon or muscle resulting from overuse or trauma. 2. A heredita...

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Stress: In a medical or biological context stress is a physical, mental, or emotional fact...

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Subacute: Rather recent onset or somewhat rapid change. In contrast, acute indicates very ...

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Symptom: Any subjective evidence of disease. In contrast, a sign is objective. Blood comin...

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Syndrome: A combination of symptoms and signs that together represent a disease process.

Syphilis: A sexually transmitted disease caused by Treponema pallidum, a microscopic orga...

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Throat: The throat is the anterior (front) portion of the neck beginning at the back of th...

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Tick: A small wingless bloodsucking insect that, along with the mite, belongs to the order...

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Ticks: Small wingless bloodsucking insects that, along with the mite, belongs to the order...

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Tuberculosis: A highly contagious infection caused by the bacterium called Mycobacterium ...

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Vaccines: Microbial preparations of killed or modified microorganisms that can stimulate a...

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Vector: In medicine, a carrier of disease or of medication. For example, in malaria a mosq...

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Viral: Of or pertaining to a virus. For example, if a person has a viral rash, the rash wa...

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Viral encephalitis: Inflammation of the brain as a result of virus infection. There are ma...

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Virus: A microorganism that is smaller than a bacterium that cannot grow or reproduce apar...

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Viruses: Small living particles that can infect cells and change how the cells function. I...

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West Nile encephalitis: A febrile disease caused by the West Nile virus that is transmitt...

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West Nile virus: The mosquito-borne virus that causes West Nile fever. One of the flavivi...

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Zovirax: Brand name of Acyclovir.

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