Encephalopathy Topic Guide
Encephalopathy: Encephalopathy (abnormal brain function) has a variety of causes. Generally, they stem from lack of nutrients, infection, poisoning, structural changes, or anoxia. Within these categories encephalopathy can be cause from lack of oxygen during childbirth, stroke, head injury, liver disease, kidney disease, high blood pressure, bacterial, viral, or fungal infections, ischemia, and metabolic dysfunction. Treatment of encephalopathy depends on the cause.
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Hyponatremia (Low Sodium) Low levels of sodium in the blood is referred to as hyponatremia. Causes of hyponatremia include: pneumonia, lung cancer, brain tumors, kidney or heart failure, liver disease, and dehydration. Some of the symptoms of hyponatremia include: headache, nausea and vomiting, confusion, and lethargy. In acute hyponatremia seizures, coma, and even death may occur. Treatment of hyponatremia is generally to balance the electrolytes and raise the sodium levels in the blood.
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