Dr. Balentine received his undergraduate degree from McDaniel College in Westminster, Maryland. He attended medical school at the Philadelphia College of Osteopathic Medicine graduating in1983. He completed his internship at St. Joseph's Hospital in Philadelphia and his Emergency Medicine residency at Lincoln Medical and Mental Health Center in the Bronx, where he served as chief resident.
Diagnostic tests that can aid in identifying endometrial cancer include the following:
Endometrial biopsy: If cancer is suspected, a sample of the endometrium is obtained through a biopsy. A biopsy is the removal of a very tiny piece of tissue from the body. The tissue is examined under a microscope for abnormalities that suggest cancer. Usually, a gynecologist or a gynecologic oncologist performs the biopsy, and the endometrial tissue is examined by a pathologist (a doctor who specializes in diagnosing diseases in this way). The most widely used method for obtaining the endometrial tissue is to insert a thin tube into the endometrium through the cervix. A biopsy is usually performed in the doctor's office and takes just a few minutes. Often, the results of an endometrial biopsy give a definitive answer about cancer.
Dilation and curettage: If the results of the endometrial biopsy are not conclusive, a procedure called a dilation and curettage (D&C) may be performed. In a D&C, the doctor passes a thin instrument through the dilated cervix and scrapes tissue from the endometrium. The tissue is removed and examined by a pathologist. This procedure is usually performed as outpatient surgery and requires general anesthesia or
sedation. Most women have minimal discomfort after this procedure and require
a short recovery time.
Hysteroscopy: Sometimes, an endoscope is used to guide the endometrial biopsy or D&C. An endoscope is a thin tube with a tiny light and camera at the end. The tube is inserted into the uterus through the cervix. The endoscope sends pictures of the endometrium back to a video monitor. A hysteroscopy allows the doctor to view the inside of the uterus while collecting endometrial tissue samples.
Staging is a system for classifying cancers based on the extent of the disease. In general, the lower the cancer stage, the better the outlook for remission and survival. (Remission is when no evidence of cancer is found in the body.) Health-care providers cannot make recommendations for the best treatment until they know the exact stage of cancer.
In endometrial cancer, staging is based on how far the primary tumor has
spread, if at all. The staging system used for endometrial cancer was developed
by the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO). The staging system for endometrial cancer is a surgical staging system, meaning that staging is based on the pathologist's findings on examining organs removed during surgery. The FIGO system uses
Stage I: The tumor is limited to the corpus (upper part) of the uterus and has not spread to the surrounding lymph nodes or other organs.
Stage IA: Tumor limited to the endometrium or less than one half the myometrium
Stage IB: Invasion equal to or more than one half the myometrium (middle layer of the uterine wall)
Stage II: Invasion of the cervical stroma but does not extend beyond the uterus (strong supportive connective tissue of the cervix)
Stage IIIA: Invasion of the serosa (outermost layer of the myometrium)
and/or the adnexa (the ovaries or fallopian tubes)
Stage IIIB: Invasion of the vagina and/or parametrial involvement
Stage IIIC1: Cancer has spread to the pelvic lymph nodes but not to distant organs
Stage IIIC2: Cancer has spread to the paraaortic lymph nodes with or without positive pelvic lymph nodes but not to distant organs
Stage IV: The cancer has spread to the inside (mucosa) of the bladder or the rectum (lower part of the large intestine) and/or to the inguinal lymph nodes and/or to the bones or distant organs outside the pelvis, such as the lungs.
Stage IVA: Tumor invasion of the bladder, the bowel mucosa, or both
Stage IVB: Metastasis to distant organs, including intra-abdominal metastasis, and/or inguinal lymph nodes
The tumor grade is also defined during the staging process. Grade indicates the aggressiveness of the cancer. Generally, low-grade tumors are less likely to metastasize or recur after treatment.