Andrew A. Dahl, MD, is a board-certified ophthalmologist. Dr. Dahl's educational background includes a BA with Honors and Distinction from Wesleyan University, Middletown, CT, and an MD from Cornell University, where he was selected for Alpha Omega Alpha, the national medical honor society. He had an internal medical internship at the New York Hospital/Cornell Medical Center.
Dr. Charles "Pat" Davis, MD, PhD, is a board certified Emergency Medicine doctor who currently practices as a consultant and staff member for hospitals. He has a PhD in Microbiology (UT at Austin), and the MD (Univ. Texas Medical Branch, Galveston). He is a Clinical Professor (retired) in the Division of Emergency Medicine, UT Health Science Center at San Antonio, and has been the Chief of Emergency Medicine at UT Medical Branch and at UTHSCSA with over 250 publications.
Chemical exposure: Prognosis depends on the chemical involved and the amount of exposure. Most chemical exposures to the eye are from substances that are not caustic (damaging) and the outlook for full recovery is excellent. However, acids and alkalis are very damaging to the eye. Depending on the extent of the exposure, loss of vision can occur.
Subconjunctival hemorrhage, corneal abrasions, and traumatic iritis: Generally, a full recovery is made.
Hyphema: Prognosis depends on the size of the hyphema and whether or not bleeding begins again. Decreased vision and glaucoma are complications.
Orbital blowout fractures: Prognosis depends on the nature and extent of the fracture. Some fractures require surgical repair. In general, the minor fractures heal without complications.
Lid lacerations: Lacerations (whether requiring suturing or not) generally have very good outcomes. As with any cuts, infection is a potential complication along with scarring.
Eyeball lacerations: These types of lacerations have a guarded prognosis.
Foreign bodies of the cornea: Removal of a rust stain can result in scarring on the cornea. Depending on the location on the cornea, the potential for affecting vision exists, although it is not commonly a problem. Foreign bodies located inside the globe of the eye or in the orbit are more complicated. Prognosis depends on the exact location and how close the object is to critical structures in the eye.
Light-induced injuries: Ultraviolet keratitis is similar to corneal abrasions regarding prognosis. Full recovery usually occurs within a few days. Solar retinopathy has no medical or surgical treatment. Prognosis depends on the amount of exposure from sun gazing. Permanent loss of vision can occur because of retinal damage.